5-1Chapter 5Chapter 5Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular TheoryGases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
5-2Kinetic-Molecular Gas TheoryKinetic-Molecular Gas Theory•Pressure–How can individual gas molecules create pressure?•Boyle’s law–Increase in gas pressure causes a decrease in volume–What happens to gas particles when they become compressed?•Dalton’s law of partial pressure–Why does each gas contribute to the pressure in proportion to its mole fraction?•Charles’s law–A change in temperature results in a change in volume–What effect does an increase in temperature have on the gas particles that results in an increase in volume?•Avogadro’s law–Gas pressure or volume depends on the moles of a gas, not on the type of the gas–Why do gas molecules occupy the same space on a molar basis?–Why do heavier gases not exert more pressure than lighter gases?
5-3Kinetic Molecular Theory of GasesKinetic Molecular Theory of GasesBehavior of Gases at the Molecular LevelBehavior of Gases at the Molecular Level31.Gases are made up of small atoms or molecules that are in constant and random motion.2.The distance of separation is very large compared to the size of the atoms or molecules•the gas is mostly empty space.3.All gas particles behave independently.•no attractive or repulsive forces exist between them1.Gas particles collide with each other and with the walls of the container without losing energy.–The energy is transferred from one atom or molecule to another2.The average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules is proportional to absolute temperature.–K.E. = 1/2mv2–as temperature goes up, the speed of the particles goes up KE increases
5-44Kinetic Molecular Theory of GasesKinetic Molecular Theory of Gases•Gases are easily compressible–A gas is mostly empty space•Gases will expand to fill any available volume–Gases move freely with enough energy to overcome attractive forces