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Chapter 05 - Gas Laws and Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Chapter 05 - Gas Laws and Kinetic-Molecular Theory -...

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5-1 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
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5-2 Kinetic-Molecular Gas Theory Kinetic-Molecular Gas Theory Pressure How can individual gas molecules create pressure? Boyle’s law Increase in gas pressure causes a decrease in volume What happens to gas particles when they become compressed? Dalton’s law of partial pressure Why does each gas contribute to the pressure in proportion to its mole fraction? Charles’s law A change in temperature results in a change in volume What effect does an increase in temperature have on the gas particles that results in an increase in volume? Avogadro’s law Gas pressure or volume depends on the moles of a gas, not on the type of the gas Why do gas molecules occupy the same space on a molar basis? Why do heavier gases not exert more pressure than lighter gases?
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5-3 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Behavior of Gases at the Molecular Level Behavior of Gases at the Molecular Level 3 1. Gases are made up of small atoms or molecules that are in constant and random motion. 2. The distance of separation is very large compared to the size of the atoms or molecules the gas is mostly empty space. 3. All gas particles behave independently. n o attractive or repulsive forces exist between them 1. Gas particles collide with each other and with the walls of the container without losing energy. The energy is transferred from one atom or molecule to another 2. The average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules is proportional to absolute temperature. K.E. = 1/2m v 2 as temperature goes up, the speed of the particles goes up KE increases
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5-4 4 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Gases are easily compressible A gas is mostly empty space Gases will expand to fill any available volume Gases move freely with enough energy to overcome attractive forces
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