Chapter 05 - Gas Laws I

Chapter 05 - Gas Laws I - 5-1Chapter 5Chapter 5Gases and the

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Unformatted text preview: 5-1Chapter 5Chapter 5Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular TheoryGases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory5-2The Three States of MatterThe Three States of MatterGas Molecules are far apart Move freely Fill available space: shape and volume of flaskLiquid Molecules are close together Move aroundeach other Take shape but not volume of flaskSolid Molecules are very close together in a regular array Do not movearound each other Do not take shape or volume of flask5-3States of MatterStates of MatterGases, Liquids, and SolidsDifferences based on relationships among particlesAverage distance between particlesAverage distances in gas phase larger than in liquid phaseTight packing in solid phaseTypes of interactions between particlesHigher degree of interactions in solids than in gasesElectrostatic interactions in solidsType and degree of organization of particlesSolids highly organizedLiquid less organizedGases disordered5-4Differences Between Gases, Liquids and SolidsDifferences Between Gases, Liquids and SolidsGasGasLiquidLiquidSolidSolidVolume and ShapeExpands to fill containerTakes shape of containerFixed volume at given mass and temperatureTakes shape of container, not volume of containerFixed volumeDefinite shapeDensityLowHighHighCompressibilityHighVery lowVirtually incompressibleParticle MotionVirtually freeAtoms and molecules slide past each otherVibration around fixed positionIntermolecular distanceVery largeAtoms or molecules close to each otherMolecules, ions or atoms very close to each other5-5Experimental Gas LawsExperimental Gas LawsPhysical behavior of gases dependent onpressure, Pvolume, Vtemperature, Tamount in moles, n Variables are interdependent:Any variable can be determined by measuring the other threeRelationships expressed byBoyles Law: dependence of volume on pressureCharles Law: dependence of volume on temperatureAvogadros Law: dependence of volume on amountIdeal Gas Law: expresses all gas laws in one equationPV = nRTStudy5-6Barometer - measures atmospheric pressureInvented by Evangelista TorricelliA commonly used unit of pressure is the atmosphere (atm).1 atm is equal to:760 mmHg760 torr76 cmHgThe Gaseous State and the Experimental Gas LawsThe Gaseous State and the Experimental Gas Laws5-7Pressure - force per unit areaGas pressure is a result of forceexerted by the collision of gas moleculeswith the walls of the containerThe Gaseous State and PressureThe Gaseous State and PressureUnitUnitScientific FieldScientific Field1 atm = 760 mmHg = 29.91 in1 atm = 760 mmHg = 29.91 inChemistry, Medicine, Chemistry, Medicine, BiologyBiology1 atm = 1.01325 x 105Pa (= N/m2, SI system)Physics, Chemistry1 atm = 1.01325 barMeteorology1 atm = 14.7 psiEngineering1 mm Hg = 1 torrChemistry5-8Boyles Gas LawBoyles Gas LawP x V = cP x V = c5-9PV = k1orPiVi= PfVf1Boyle Gas LawRelationship between volume and pressure of a gas, if...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CHEM 1311 taught by Professor Baishakhidas,ms. during the Spring '08 term at Alamo Colleges.

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Chapter 05 - Gas Laws I - 5-1Chapter 5Chapter 5Gases and the

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