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Chapter 08 - Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicit

Chapter 08 - Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicit...

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8-1 Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity I Chemical Periodicity I
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8-2 A: mass number; A = Z + N Z: atomic number = number of protons in nucleus determines the chemical identity of an element N: number of neutrons in the nucleus e: number of electrons = number of protons Where are all the electrons? A Z X The Symbol of the Atom or Isotope Atomic Symbols, Isotopes, Numbers (Chpt. 2)
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8-3 Structure of the Atom (Chpt 2) Structure of the Atom (Chpt 2) Atom - the basic structural unit of an element. The smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
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8-4 Atomic Theory: the Bohr Atom Atomic Theory: the Bohr Atom Electrons exist in specific energy levels around the nucleus: “Quantization” of energy Absorption of energy brings the electron to a higher energy level: “promotion” of electron “Excited State” Energy is released as the electron falls back to lower energy levels: “Relaxation” Initial understanding of the H atom by Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
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8-5 Bohr postulated fixed energy levels: “ Orbits” Ground state - the lowest possible energy state Excited state – higher energy level E = E C E B = E photon = “quantum” of light
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8-6 The orbits are also identified using “quantum numbers” n = 1, 2, 3, … n=1 n=2 n=3 When the electron relaxes (c), the energy released is observed as a single wavelength of light, resulting in a spectral line
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8-7 Quantum Staircase Quantum Staircase Electron Transition in the Hydrogen Emission Spectrum Line color Wavelength (nm) Electron transition from n = to n = Red 656.4 3 2 Green 486.3 4 2 Blue 434.2 5 2 Violet 410.3 6 2
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8-8 The Line Spectra Of Several Elements The Line Spectra Of Several Elements
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8-9 Quantum Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle “It is impossible to know the exact location and momentum (= mass x speed) of a particle simultaneously” Erwin Schrödinger developed mathematical equations that describe the particle and wave nature of electrons an atom has certain allowed quantities of energy due to the wave-like behavior of an electron whose exact location cannot be known Schrödinger Equations : determine the probability of finding an electron in a specific region in space define principle energy levels (n = 1, 2, 3…) (Bohr model) propose sublevels or subshells (s, p, d, f) and describe orbital : the specific region with a high probability to find an electron
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8-10 Modern Atomic Theory Modern Atomic Theory Revisions of Bohr’s model postulate: Electrons do not move in orbits: there are no “orbits” (= fixed energy levels) There are “atomic orbitals” regions in space with a high probability of finding an electron.
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