Chapter 08 - Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicit

Chapter 08 - Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicit...

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Unformatted text preview: 8-1Chapter 8Chapter 8Electron Configuration and Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity IChemical Periodicity I8-2A: mass number; A = Z + NZ: atomic number = number of protons in nucleusdetermines the chemical identity of an elementN: number of neutrons in the nucleuse: number of electrons = number of protonsWhere are all the electrons?AZXThe Symbol of the Atom or IsotopeAtomic Symbols, Isotopes, Numbers (Chpt. 2)8-3Structure of the Atom (Chpt 2)Structure of the Atom (Chpt 2)•Atom- the basic structural unit of an element.–The smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element8-4Atomic Theory: the Bohr AtomAtomic Theory: the Bohr AtomElectrons exist in specific energy levels around the nucleus: “Quantization”of energyAbsorption of energy brings the electron to a higher energy level: “promotion” of electron “Excited State”Energy is released as the electron falls back to lower energy levels:“Relaxation”Initial understanding of the H atom by Niels Bohr (1885-1962)8-5•Bohr postulated fixed energy levels: “Orbits”•Ground state- the lowest possible energy state•Excited state– higher energy level∆E = EC– EB= Ephoton= “quantum” of light 8-6•The orbits are also identified using “quantum numbers”–n = 1, 2, 3, …n=1n=2n=3•When the electron relaxes (c), the energy released is observed as a single wavelength of light, resulting in a spectral line8-7Quantum StaircaseQuantum StaircaseElectron Transition in the Hydrogen Emission SpectrumLine colorWavelength (nm)Electron transition fromn =to n =Red656.432Green486.342Blue434.252Violet410.3628-8The Line Spectra Of Several ElementsThe Line Spectra Of Several Elements8-9Quantum MechanicsQuantum MechanicsHeisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle•“It is impossible to know the exact location and momentum (= mass x speed) of a particle simultaneously”Erwin Schrödinger•developed mathematical equations that describe the particle and wave nature of electrons •an atom has certain allowed quantities of energy due to the wave-like behavior of an electron whose exact location cannot be knownSchrödinger Equations:•determine the probability of finding an electron in a specific regionin space•define principle energy levels(n = 1, 2, 3…) (Bohr model) •propose sublevelsor subshells(s, p, d, f) and •describe orbital: the specific region with a high probability to find an electron8-10Modern Atomic TheoryModern Atomic Theory•Revisions of Bohr’s model postulate:–Electrons do notmove in orbits: there are no “orbits” (= fixed energy levels)–There are “atomic orbitals” •regions in space with a high probabilityof finding an electron....
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CHEM 1311 taught by Professor Baishakhidas,ms. during the Spring '08 term at Alamo Colleges.

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Chapter 08 - Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicit...

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