Chapter 09 - Chemical Bonding

Chapter 09 - Chemical Bonding - Chapter 9 Models of...

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Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Models of Chemical Bonding Bonding
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A General Comparison Of Metals And Nonmetals A General Comparison Of Metals And Nonmetals
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Types of Chemical Bonding Types of Chemical Bonding 1. Ionic Bonding Metal with nonmetal electron transfer and ionic bonding - large differences in tendency to loose or gain electrons - low ionization energy (metals in Group 1A and 2A) - high electron affinity (non-metals in Group 6A and 7A) - electron transfer from metals to non-metals - 3-dimensional ionic solid - chemical formula = cation-to-anion ratio - NaCl - Al 2 O 3
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Types of Chemical Bonding Types of Chemical Bonding 2. Covalent Bonding Nonmetal with nonmetal electron sharing and covalent bonding - small differences in tendency to loose or gain electrons - high ionization energy - high electron affinity - electron pair localized between nuclei - separate molecules - chemical formula = actual number of atoms in molecule (molecular formula) - HF - HCl - CH 4 - CH 3 COOH - C 2 H 5 OH - IF 5 - H 2 O
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Types of Chemical Bonding Types of Chemical Bonding 3. Metallic Bonding Metal with metal electron pooling and metallic bonding - metal atoms large - outer electrons well-shielded from nucleus - low ionization energy loose electrons easily - slightly negative or positive electron affinity no gain of electrons - metals share valence electrons in a “sea of electrons” - electrons are delocalized, flowing freely between metal metal atoms
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Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875-1946) Method to describe electron bonding and distribution, proposed in 1902 Element symbol represents nucleus + inner core electrons Dots represents outer core valence electrons (= electrons participating in bonding) Gilbert Newton Lewis's memorandum of 1902 showing his speculations about the role of electrons in atomic structure. From Valence and the Structure of Atoms and Molecules (1923), p. 29. Chemical Heritage Foundation Collections. Gilbert Newton Lewis
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Example: Nitrogen, N, is in Group 5A and therefore has 5 valence electrons. N : . . . : N . . . . N : . . N . . . Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols Method to describe electron bonding and distribution, proposed in 1902 by Lewis Element symbol represents nucleus + inner core electrons Dots represents outer core valence electrons (= electrons participating in bonding) For main group elements The A group number gives the number of valence electrons Place one dot per valence electron on each of the four sides of the element symbol Pair the dots (electrons) until all of the valence electrons are used
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Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols for Elements in Periods 2 and 3 Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols for Elements in Periods 2 and 3
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Depicting Ion Formation Depicting Ion Formation SOLUTION : Problem: Use partial orbital diagrams and Lewis symbols to depict the formation of Na + and O 2-
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CHEM 1311 taught by Professor Baishakhidas,ms. during the Spring '08 term at Alamo Colleges.

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Chapter 09 - Chemical Bonding - Chapter 9 Models of...

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