Chapter 10 - Shapes of Molecules Handout I

# Chapter 10 - Shapes of Molecules Handout I - Chapter 10 The...

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10-1 Chapter 10 Chapter 10 The Shapes of Molecules The Shapes of Molecules

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10-2 Molecules “fit” together like the shapes of a puzzle to perform their function The Shapes of Molecules “Sun and Moon” - M.C. Escher,1948
10-3 The Shapes of Molecules The Shapes of Molecules Lewis Formula Lewis Formula Depicting Molecules and Ions with Lewis Structures depict molecules as two-dimensional structural formula convert to three-dimensional objects Octet Rule “when atoms bond together, they lose, gain, or share electrons to attain a filled outer level of eight (or two for hydrogen) electrons”

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10-4 Molecular formula Atom placement Sum of valence e - Remaining valence e - Lewis structure Place atom with lowest EN in center Add A-group numbers Draw single bonds. Subtract 2e - for each bond. Give each atom 8e - (2e - for H) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Lewis Structures for Molecules with Single Bonds Lewis Structures for Molecules with Single Bonds Steps in Converting a Molecular Formula Into a Lewis Structure Steps in Converting a Molecular Formula Into a Lewis Structure
10-5 Molecular formula Atom placement Sum of valence e - Remaining valence e - Lewis structure For NF 3 N F F F N 5e - x 1 = 5e - F 7e - x 3 = 21e - Total 26e - : : : : : : : Octet ruled obeyed? 3 bonds = 6e - Remaining: 20e -

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10-6 Rules for Lewis Formulas Rules for Lewis Formulas Central Atom H 1 bond O 2 bonds N 3 bonds C 4 bonds Halogens 1 bond fluorine is always “surrounding” atom S, P different number of bonds
10-7 Lewis Structures for Molecules with Lewis Structures for Molecules with Multiple Bonds Multiple Bonds What if there are not enough electron for the central atom to form an octet after writing the Lewis structure? Multiple bonds Make multiple bond by changing a non-bonding pair of electrons into a bonding pair of electrons to the central atom Example: Nitrogen N 2 N 2 has 2 x 5e - = 10 valence e - Let’s write the Lewis structure Triple bond is required to make the octet around each N N : N . . . N N . . N N

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10-8 Resonance: Delocalized Electron-Pair Bonding Resonance: Delocalized Electron-Pair Bonding Resonance structures have the same relative atom placement but a difference in the locations of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs. O
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Chapter 10 - Shapes of Molecules Handout I - Chapter 10 The...

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