2 Early Urbanization

2 Early Urbanization - Early Urbanization Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Outline Development of Early Towns City Origins Function of Early Cities

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Unformatted text preview: Early Urbanization Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Outline Development of Early Towns City Origins Function of Early Cities Prerequisites for a True City Keys to Urban Growth Decline of Urban Systems 3 Major Types of Urban Form Development of Early Towns Transition from hunter/gatherer to settled agriculture. Production of surplus food. Stimulus for trade. City Origins Largely a product of the last 2 centuries Although, origins are thousands of years old... Settled Agriculture Chronology 8,000 to 6,500 BC: Mesopotamia 6,000 to 2,000 BC: Egypt 6,000 to 3,000BC: India 5,000 to 3,000 BC: China 4,000 to 1,000 BC: Europe 3,000 BC to AD 700: Americas Function of Early Cities They were a center for: Administrative institutions Trade Agricultural products and craft City still strongly linked to countryside Religion Political and military Towns: a Locus for Trade Key trade functions Safe storage Safe system of democracy Place to stay at night System of contract Transportation Growth of Specialization Employment Retail trade Food and lodging Storage Specialization (cont) Production Food crops vs cash crops Agricultural tools Cooking utensils Clothing 3 Prerequisites for a True City 1. Population growth and density Technological improvements lead to agricultural surplus Competition over most fertile land & other "good" locations Defensive fortifications for people & surplus 3 Prerequisites for a True City 2. Specialized labor and hierarchy Specialization of employment Hierarchy replaces egalitarian society Political ruler religious ruler Elaborate temple complex Distribution of surplus during time of need 3 Prerequisites for a True City 3. Imperial control City controls agricultural hinterland City dominates nearby towns City controls land, sea, river (trade routes) Innovations from Mesopotamia Elaborate architectural structures Writing The wheel Innovations from Egypt Monumental buildings Pyramids Temples Centralized authority Required to organize labor for construction Lessons from Harappa (pakistan) Grid pattern Water & sanitation Keys to Urban Growth Diversification is key to survival Preservation of trade routes Symbiotic rural urban links City is a parasite OR City generates rural growth Decline of Urban Systems Change of trade routes Loss of soil fertility Debasement of ruling class Military conquest/domination Technological advance elsewhere 3 Major Types of Urban Form PreIndustrial City: small in size wealthy line in the center poor live at the periphery protective wall center for religious & administrative buildings Industrial City: temples & public buildings are @ center streets radiated from center rectangular housing with an open interior courtyard walled cities PostIndustrial City: Pre-Industrial Cities Greece acropolis on hillside agorasa market central meeting place temple complex separate partial grid pattern Greek Urban Innovations Post & lintel construction (decorative columns to support roof) Decoration of building, marble or alabaster sculptures Business in the agora Sidewalks in the agora Complete street plan, grid pattern @ center Pre-Industrial Cities Rome water supply forum replaces agora street pattern in legion towns aqueducts, public baths Medieval City Types Feudal Merchant Closely tied to countryside Mix of rural workers & artisans Trade, craft & commerce City divided into occupational quarters Dominated by a single family & elite cluster Absolutist Industrial Revolution 18th century to present Significant world wide urbanization Early Industrial City Form Factories built near where owners live Workers house near factories Terrible Near city center Change in Transport Technology Change in Transport Modes: foot, horse, rail, car Expansion of the Industrial City Wealth moved to edge of town City center becomes commercial & financial hub Avoid congestion & pollution *overall tremendous growth Post-Industrial City Service replaces manufacturing Multiple centers of activity Professional & technical classes Advanced information systems telecommuting Research & development Internal Structure of the City Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Concentric circles around CBD CBD with radial arms along transport axes Competing commercial districts Large scale population dispersion Multiple Nuclei Theory Low cost public & private transportation *CBD Central Business District ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course URS 1006 taught by Professor Chriscoutts during the Fall '07 term at FSU.

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