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Unformatted text preview: An Overview of Urban Problems Challenges of Rapid Urbanization Outline Causes of rapid urbanization Colonial & postcolonial cities Excessive size of cities Globalization Problems associated with growth Westernization v. Modernization What can be done? Causes of Rapid Urbanization Europe & North America in the 1800's Industrializing (pull factors) Rural stagnation (push factors) Higher wages in factories Expectation of more opportunities in cities Colonial Cities Colonial era zenith in 19th & 20th centuries Cities blend of western & indigenous culture European colonial city Crafted colonial city Created from scratch Bombay (Mumbai), Hong Kong, Nairobi European areas added to indigenous urban centers Shanghai, Delhi, Tunis Post-Colonial Cities After WWII most colonies received their independence Rapid urban growth after independence Economic focus still primary products Agricultural cash crops Mineral exports Capital city = $$ Some higher wage jobs Limited manufacturing Excessive Size in MDCs Trend towards even larger urban systems Spatial but not political merging Conurbations/supermetropolitan regions Megalopolis (Boston, NY, Washington) Miami Ft. Lauderdale Palm Beach 5.3 Million people Cities along transportation 42.5 Million people Ten Largest U.S. Metro Areas
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 New York Los Angeles Chicago Washington San Francisco Philadelphia Dallas Boston Detroit Miami NY CA IL DC CA PA TX MA MI FL 21,713,552 17,629,607 9,661,840 7,986,608 7,168,176 5,976,485 5,819,475 5,596,388 5,428,000 5,422,200 As of 2005, Source: http://www.citypopulation.de/cities.html Excessive Size in LDCs Too many people in too little space Catalyst of other urban problems Many urban problems Unstable economic base Deficit of existing infrastructure Limited finances to invest in new infrastructure 1. overcrowding 2. Need of water 3. waste 4. traffic 5. Environmental quality Poor Housing Quality Squatter Settlements Unauthorized construction Of ten on the periphery or undesirable locations Land not officially owned Sleep slopes Flood plains Other "unsafe" or ecologically unstable areas Types of Squatter Areas Self built housing materials used Synonyms for squatter settlements Barmadas or pueblos jovenes Peru Gecekondu Turkey Farelas Brazil Tin, cardboard, straw, mats, sacks Squatter Settlements Slums poor communities in old, run down center cities Not fully integrated into the processes of urban development MDCs Unemployment LDC's Unemployment & Underemployment Unemployment Underemployment Employed below skill level or for fewer hours and/or less pay than desired. Competition for Resources Lack of social responsibility
Road rage Crime Environmental abuses City life brings out the worse in people Social pathologies Realities of Urbanization:
Westernization v. Modernization Is homogenization a threat? Developing countries attempt to Boost economies & industrialize Raise standard of living Maintain traditional culture & ways of life Global Restructuring Globalization (good or bad?) Movements of products, money, labor World markets not local or regional Transnational corporations Decisions made in N. America Asia & Europe affect destinies of cities/workers all over the globe. Knowledge transfer of education, skills & technology Refugees & Resettlement Massive Movements of people Lure of jobs in MDCs Regional & Civil Wars in LDcs Refugee movt's & resources
Food/water Health care & Shelter What can be done? Better infrastructure planning Better Training Improved Financial Management Revenue Collection More Participation More appropriate technology Taxes & Fees ...
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- Fall '07