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Unformatted text preview: Appendicular Skeleton & Articulations Clavicle Articulates with superior-anterior thorax Medially with the sternum, lateral with the scapula Functions as an anterior brace Acromial & Sternal Ends Scapula Shoulder blades Thin triangular bones on posterior thorax form part of the shoulder Articulates with humerus & clavicle Scapula Humerus Single upper arm bone, round head Articulates with the scapulas, radius, and ulna Indentation on one side for elbow, hole must be to back and the head fits into the shoulder Humerus Radius and Ulna Together make up the forearm Articulate with the humerus and wrist bones Radius always on thumb side; flat round circle on top (allows supination/ pronation of hand) Ulna big notch on top (elbow) fits into hole on radius Radius and Ulna Os Coxa The pelvis Functions Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton Support the visceral organs found in the pelvis 3 Regions Illium Ishium Pubis Illium Femur The femur is the largest strongest bone in the body Femur Lower Leg Patella The largest sesamoid bone in the body Protects the knee and helps improve leverage of the thigh muscles crossing the knee Tibia Receives the weight of the body Fibula The fibula does not bear any weight Tibia and Fibula Articulations and Movements Background on Joints Joints have 2 main functions 1: Give mobility to the skeleton 2: Hold the skeleton together Joints can be categorized by their structure and function Structural Classification Joints are categorized by the material binding them together and the presence of a joint cavity Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Functional classification Joints are classified based on the movement they allow Immovable slightly movable Freely movable Fibrous Joints Joints are formed by fibrous tissue and there is NO joint cavity 3 types of fibrous Joints Suture: between skull bones Immovable Syndesmosis: bones are connected by ligaments so movement depends on fibers classified as immovable Gomphosis: joint where teeth attach immovable Cartilaginous Joints Bones are united by cartilage, there is no joint cavity 2 types of cartilaginous joints: Synchondrosis: hylin cartilage Immovable Growth plates, 1st rib, manubrium Symphysis: fibrocartlige Slightly movable Intervertebral joints, pubic symphasis Synovial Joints Have a fluid filled cavity Freely movable Structure consists of: Articular cartilage surrounding bone ends Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid surrounded by a fibrous capsule Reinforcing ligaments Synovial Joint Joint Capsule: Protect sack minimizes friction and nourishes cartilage Synovial Fluid Articular Cartilage Ligaments 6 Types of Synovial Joints Plane flat bones; allow for short gliding movement Hinge 2 movements Example: elbow, knee Pivot allows for rotation w/ 1 axis Example: radius & ulna turn palm up or down Condyloid (Ellipsoid) allows for angular movements Example: knuckle where finger meets hand Saddle - thumb Ball and Socket shoulder, hip Synovial Joints 1) Ball and Socket Joint: widest range of movement (shoulder) 2) Condyloid: move side to side, rotation is limited (wrist) 3) Saddle: bones back and forth and side to side rotation limited (thumb) 4) Hinge: Forward and Backward (elbow) 5) Pivot: Rotation (neck) Movements Flexion Decreasing a joint angle Extension Increasing a joint angle Hyperextension Increasing the angle farther than normal Past the joints straight upright position Movements Abduction Away from the midline Adduction Towards the midline Lateral Flexion Adduction in the lateral plane Bend torso to the side (decreasing angle of joint) Medial and Lateral Rotation (feet) Rotation along the long axis Movements Circumduction Cone shaped movement Opposition Touching thumb to other fingers, via saddle joint Plantar Flexion Pointing toes down Dorsiflexion Pulling toes up Movements Movements of the radius and ulna Supination palm facing up Pronation (dribbling the ball) Movements of the foot Inversion Eversion Movements Protraction bringing jaw forward Retraction bringing jaw back Movement in the transverse plane Mandible movement Elevation to raise up Depression to press down Movement superior and inferiorly Shoulder movement up and down Gliding Bones slipping across each other (wrist bones) ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PET 3322L taught by Professor Rich during the Spring '08 term at FSU.
- Spring '08