Unformatted text preview: Respiratory Regulation Nasal Cavity External Nares Posterior Nasal Aperture Ethmoid and Sphenoid Sinuses Hard Palate Soft Palate Nasal Cavity Pharynx Oropharynx: mouth extends btw the soft palate and the base of the tongue at the level of the hyoid bone Nasopharynx: Superior Portion of pharynx Laryngopharynx: Inferior part of the pharynx, the entrance to the larynx and esophagus Pharynx Larynx True Vocal Cords: Very Delicate Thyroid Cartilage: Shield Shaped. The largest laryngeal cartilage Laryngeal Prominence: Formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage. More common in men b/c the growth of the larynx during puberty is responsible during vocal instability in teenage boys. Epiglottis: shoe-horn shaped projects superior to the glottis and forms a lid over it. Composed of elastic cartilage. Cricoid Cartilage: Another hyaline cartilage Glottis: the opening where inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx Larynx Trachea and Bronchi Trachea: windpipe, a tough, flexible tube with a diameter of about 2.5cm and a length of about 11cm Bronchi Primary: form the bronchial tree Secondary: each primary bronchus divides to form secondary bronchi. In each lung, one secondary bronchus goes to each lobe, so the right lung has 3 secondary bronchi and the left lung has 2secondary bronchi Tertiary: secondary branch to form tertiary bronchi. Trachea and Bronchi Bronchioles and Alveoli Bronchioles: The 1st airway branches that no longer contain cartilage Alveoli: Respiratory bronchioles that are connected to individual alveoli and to multiple alveoli along regions called alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs: common chambers connected to multiple individual alveoli Pleura Pleura: Thin covering that protects and cushions the lungs. Made up of two layers Parietal: Outer pleura that is attached to the chest wall Visceral: inner pleura is attached to the lung and other visceral tissues Diaphargm: Sheet of muscle that separates the thorax and abdumen in mammals Lungs Lungs: Are the essential respiration organ in airbreathing vertebrates Lobes: Right lung has 3 lobes; the left lung has 2 lobes Nasal Cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea and Bronchi Respiratory Disorders Common Cold Affects some people every 2 to 3 years, and others 2-3 times a year Can be 200 types of viruses that cause the common cold Spread in fluid that fills the air (tiny droplets of mucous from coughing or sneezing) or in contact (shaking hands) Cold viruses change their surface coatings it is hard to make antiviral drugs Bird Flu Influenza A Origin in birds Caused illness in birds (bird flu) Virus subtype H5N1 infects several birds (including chickens) Can affect humans who are in close contact with infected birds Cause serious form of influenza with respiratory complications No evidence of it spreading from human-to-human Bird flu not a big problem...mutation is!!! Tuberculosis (TB) Infectious disease that attacks the lungs and spreads from person to person Difference between being infected with TB and having TB disease Close contact with repeat encounters (family, friends, work together) and in closed spaces Rare occurrences of airplane but it is documented Silicosis Inhaled silica (common in concrete and glass) particles Cause occupational lung diseases Thickening if lung tissue Loss of breath and coughing increases over the years Less common in developed countries because of clothing and masks Asbestosis Exposure to asbestos fibers Asbestos fibers were used in construction before 1975 Miners, asbestos under floor tiles Coughing Stiffened lungs Lung cancer Dry Cough Lung Cancer Most common in 9/10 cases is tobacco smoke Men USE to be at higher risk then women, but at the turn of the 20th the table have turned "Smokers cough" Coughing up blood Chest pain
Ingredients of a Cigarette Components in a Cigarette Nicotene: once used as an insecticide Benzene: high melting point its carcinogenic, once used as in gasoline Ammonia: inhances nicotene to the blood stream. Used in fertilizer, used in gasoline, and disinfectant Hydrogen Cyanide: is listed as a chemical warfare agent it is poisonous. 2003 Al Queda in NY subway Carbon Monoxide: toxic gas with no odor and one of the most fatal poisoning in many contries. Tar: roads, for shingles, seals ships, thick black liquid ...
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- Spring '08
- bird flu, lungs Lung cancer