Unformatted text preview: The Mosaic Covenant
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the Mosaic covenant? How does the law function in the Mosaic covenant? What types of law are in the Mosaic covenant? How are those laws related? Was Israel able to keep the covenant? 1. What is the Mosaic covenant? Resembles a Hittite vassal treaty See Exod 19:38; Exod 20:124:11; Josh A historical prologue of benefits Stipulations of the relationship Blessings for obedience and curses for disobedience Swearing of an oath by the vassal 24:124 What is the significance of identifying the Mosaic covenant as a vassal treaty? Yahweh is not only Israel's God but He is Israel's King Other indications of Yahweh's kingship The manner in which Israel encamped around the tabernacle in the wilderness. The symbolism of the ark. (see Psalm 99:15) Tribes Tabernacle Tribes Tribes Tribes What type of covenanttreaty is the Mosaic covenant? Obligatory Covenant Exod 19:5 "If you obey me fully and keep my covenant then out of all the nations you will be my treasured possession." Exod 19:8 Israel swears an oath to keep Yahweh's covenant. Exod 24:69 A covenant sacrifice. Blood is sprinkled on both the altar and the people who swear an oath to keep the covenant. Exod 32:10, 19 Israel's disobedience breaks the covenant. They must be forgiven the relationship renewed. The Significance of a Covenant Sacrifice Jeremiah 34:1820 "The men who have violated my covenant and have not fulfilled the terms of the covenant they made before me, I will treat like the calf they cut in two and then walked between its pieces. . . . I will hand them over to their enemies who seek their lives. Their dead bodies will become food for birds of the air and the beasts of the earth." Iliad 3.264301 2. How does the law function in the Mosaic covenant? Legalism Covenantal nomism A person keeps the law in order to gain and keep a relationship with God. A person keeps the law out of gratitude for the kindness God has already shown towards that person. The law defines both God's promised faithfulness to the covenant and Israel's obligation to keep the covenant. The function of the historical prologue in the ancient vassal treaties Faithfulness secured by indebted gratitude 3. Two Types of Ancient Law Apodictic Casuistic Direct secondperson commands without any statement of circumstances or sanction Conditional statements where the "if clause" states the circumstances and the "then clause" the legal consequence Predominant form of ancient law Where do we encounter these types of law in the Mosaic covenant? Exodus 20:317 The 10 commandments (apodictic law) Arrangement: Commands 14: worship of God Commands 510: relationship to others Exodus 2122 Casuistic law You shall not commit murder 4. How are these types of laws related? Exod 21:1214 He who strikes a man a fatal blow shall be put to death. But he who did not act deliberately, it being an act of God--I will designate a place for where he may flee. But if a man maliciously plotted against his neighbor to slay him, you shall take him to be executed even from my altar. Exod 21:2832 If an ox gores a man or woman to death, the ox shall be stoned . . . but the owner of the ox free from blame. But if the ox had a fixed habit of goring, and sworn testimony to that effect was given to the owner and yet he did not watch it and it kills a man or woman, then the ox shall be stoned and also its owner shall be put to death. 5. Was Israel able to keep the covenant?
Episodes of Rebellion in the Wilderness
A Idolatry: the Golden Calf (Exod 32:135) B Murmuring (Num 11:13) C Desire for meat (Num 11:435) D Miriam and Aaron (Num 12:115) E D C B A Failure to enter Canaan (Num 1314) Korah (Num 16:150) Quarrel about water (Numb 20:113) Murmuring (Num 21:49) Idolatry: BaalPeor (Num 25:19) Why is Israel not able to keep the covenant? Go back to the beginning, Gen 311. Deut 31:1522 predicts Israel's apostasy even before they enter the promised land. SOLUTION: Deut 30:6 gives the solution to the problem. God will circumcise Israel's hearts. He will transform them and give them the ability to keep His covenant in the future. ...
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- Spring '08
- Law, Moses, Promised Land, Mosaic Covenant