22_Parables on the Kingdom

22_Parables on the Kingdom - Parables on the Kingdom What...

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Unformatted text preview: Parables on the Kingdom What is a parable? LXX "Parable" translates mashal (MT). Includes various types of metaphorical speech: Proverb-parable (Ezek 12:22-23) Allegory-parable (Ezek 17:2-21) Aristotle Art of Rhetoric 2.20 Examples Real Ficticious Comparisons (parabolai) Fables (logoi) Progymnasmata Fable (mythoi, logoi): fictive statement imaging truth. Their aim was moral, i.e., to effect change in thinking and behavior. Rational involved human characters Irrational involved animal characters Mixed involved both humans and animal characters Instructions concerning fables from Theon and Luke 12:13-21. We bring in a fable after having stated its meaning. Luke 12:15-16a Weave a fable into a narrative sometimes putting the narrative first. Luke 12:13-14 narrative Luke 12:16-20 parable It is possible to provide a conclusion whenever, after that fable has been stated, we venture to bring in some gnomic statement fitting it. Luke 12:21 In the later rabbinic tradition, parables were employed to explain passages of Scripture Cf. Luke 10:25-37 (explains Lev. 19:18) Cf. Luke 20:9-19 (explains Ps. 118:22). In the Gospels parables not only seek to explain Scripture but also show us what the "kingdom of God" is like. The Kingdom of God Summation of Jesus' Preaching Matt 4:17 "Repent for the Kingdom of Heaven is near." In Matthew, "kingdom of heaven" = "kingdom of God" (cf. 19:23-24) = "my Father's kingdom" (cf. 26.29) "Heaven" suggests the source of God's "kingdom," namely, that it is brought about by God's initiative and not by human initiative or effort. What does mean? Dynamic meaning = Reign This meaning is ubiquitous in the OT Affirms that God is the universal ruler over all nations because He is the Creator. Ps 145:1, 10-13 (cf. 22:28; 46:7-8; 103:19; 93-99) "Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom and your dominion endures through all generations" (vs. 13) "His kingdom is an eternal kingdom and his dominion endures from generation to generation." Dan 4:3; 34b God's reign brings forth salvation for His people Isa 52:7-10 God's saving activity predicated upon His universal reign God's salvation of His people provides the purpose for His sovereign control over creation and history. Spatial meaning = Realm Where God's sovereignty/reign is acknowledged and manifested through His saving activity. In the OT, God's reign was acknowledged and manifested among His people, Israel. God was Israel's king (remember 1 Sam 8:7) Israel failed to acknowledge God's kingship and so came under the dominion of other nations. There then developed a hope that God would establish a kingdom/realm for his people in the age to come. Dan 2:44; 7:14, 18, 27 in Matthew Dynamic sense God's salvific reign 12:28-29 In Jesus (12:28-29) the Messianic king The age-to-come The kingdom is entered resulting in salvation (5:20; 7:21; 19:23-25) The kingdom is inherited at the return of Jesus (25:34; cf. 5:3; 13:36-43) Spatial sense Manifestation of God's salvific reign In God's people (i.e., among Jesus' followers, the church) Matt 6:10 "Let your kingdom come and your will be done on earth as in heaven." Combines both aspects. We are to pray for God's salvific reign to become fully manifested on earth. God's kingdom is both a present reality that is in the process of becoming fully realized/manifested at the end of history when Jesus returns. Parables on the Kingdom Matthew 13 Deals with the present reality of God's reign among His people. In the preceding narrative we see both positive and negative responses to Jesus (e.g., 9:9-13). 11-12 focus more on the negative-critical responses to Jesus The present generation's fickle response to Jesus and John Woes pronounced on unrepentant cities Contention by religious leaders Positive response to Jesus determines whether one belongs to Jesus' family Matthew 13 explains the present response of people to the preaching of the kingdom. The Sower and the Soils (13:3-9) Road side (Satan) Stony ground (Persecution) Thorny ground (Wealth) Fertile ground (God) True, saving response to Jesus is indicated by the fruit one bears (cf. 7:17-27) Fruit = Matt 5:3-12, Beatitudes Matthew 24:36-25:30 Matthew 24-25 is called the "eschatological discourse." A speech where Jesus addresses prophetically the circumstances surrounding the destruction of the Temple and when he returns at the end of the age (cf. 24:3- "When will this [destruction of the Temple] happen and what will be the sign of your coming.") Parables in the latter half on the discourse focus on being prepared for the return of Jesus, i.e., doing what Jesus has taught until the day he returns as the judge of all nations (25:31-46) Owner and the Thief (24:42-43) Faithful Servant (24:45-51) Ten Virgins (25:1-13) Talents (25:14-30) ...
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