Exam 1 Chapter 10 – Personality Freud: - most important causes of behavior are motives, especially unconscious - personality is determined by the interplay of inner conflicts & their resolution - personality is set by adolescence Three systems of personality: - Id: pleasure principle - Ego: reality principle - Superego: conscience/ideal Defense Mechanisms - Repression: blocking a wish or desire from conscious expression - Denial: refusing to believe a painful reality - Projection: Attributing an unconscious impulse, attitude, or behavior to another - Reaction Formation: Expressing an impulse by its opposite - Displacement: satisfying an impulse with a substitute object Psychosexual Development: Oral stage (birth to 18 months): part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Mouth - Major conflict = weaning Anal stage (18 months to 36 months): part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Anus - Major conflict = toilet training Phallic stage (3 to 6 yrs): part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Genitals - Major conflict = Oedipus complex & castration anxiety (for boys) = Electra complex & penis envy (for girls) Latency stage (5 or 6 to puberty): part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = dormant sexual feelings - Major conflict = Period of sexual calm = Interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends Genital stage (from puberty on): part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Genitals - Major conflict = Revival of sexual interests = Establishment of mature sexual relationships Neo Freudians:
Carl Jung - Components of Personality: Ego, Personal Conscious, Collective Unconscious - Anima: female component of male psyche - Animus: male component of female psyche - The Shadow: dark side of human nature - The Persona: social mask wear around other people - The Self: archetype guides our search for wholeness… Alfred Adler - Inferiority Complex - Sibling rivalry - Birth order - oldest= leaders, middle=negotiators, youngest=clowns, only=perfectionists Karen Horney - little girls aren’t inferior to boys - social relationship is more important than unconscious sexual/aggressive impulses Erik Erikson - theory of psychosocial development Learning Theories: Behavior theory – situational or environmental influences shape personality Albert Bandura – Social cognitive theory: - person variables (within the person such as knowledge, skills, emotions, plans) vs. situation variable (rewards vs. punishments) - self-efficacy expectations Humanistic Carl Rogers – Person centered theory - Most innate tendency of humans is a drive towards becoming a fully functioning person -Two types of personalities: Fully functioning person – self-actualizing with a positive self-concept Maladjusted person – not self-actualizing with a negative self-concept - Incongruence vs. Congruence Abraham Maslow - Self-actualization: primary motivation for healthy individual Hierarchy of needs: bottom of triangle = basic needs (physiological or survival needs) safety needs
love, affection, and belongingness needs esteem needs top of triangle = need for self-actualization Trait theories:
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- Fall '13
- Classical Conditioning