Study Guide for Chapter 10 - Personality You should be able to define / describe / provide an example of / identify an example of: I. Groups of personality theories – different approaches try to do different things A. Psychoanalytic perspective – originated with Freud 1. Key assumptions a. The most important causes of behavior are motives, especially unconscious motives b. Personality is determined by the interplay of inner conflicts & their resolution c. Personality is set by adolescence 2. Three systems of personality a. Id i. Pleasure principle b. Ego i. Reality principle c. Superego i. Conscience ii. Ideal 3. Psychosexual development a. Fixation b. Oral stage (birth to 18 months) i. part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Mouth ii. major conflict at this stage? weaning c. Anal stage (18 months to 36 months) i. part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Anus ii. major conflict at this stage? toilet training d. Phallic stage (3 to 6 yrs) i. part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Genitals ii. major conflict at this stage? Oedipus complex & castration anxiety (for boys) Electra complex & penis envy (for girls) e. Latency stage (5 or 6 to puberty) i. part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = dormant sexual feelings ii. conflicts/experiences Period of sexual calm Interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends f. Genital stage (from puberty on) i. part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations = Genitals ii. conflicts/experiences Revival of sexual interests Establishment of mature sexual relationships
B. The Neo-Freudians 1. Carl Jung & Analytical psychology a. Components of personality i. Ego ii. Personal unconscious iii. Collective unconscious b. Archetypes i. Anima (female component of the male psyche) ii. Animus (male component of the female psyche) iii. The Shadow iv. The Persona v. The Self 2. Alfred Adler & Individual psychology a. Main contributions i. inferiority complex iii. sibling rivalry iv. birth order b. Real or perceived inferiority leads to compensatory process 3. Karen Horney a. Argued that little girls do not feel inferior to boys (because they have a penis) b. Social relationship more important than unconscious sexual/aggressive impulses 4. Erik Erikson a. Theory of psychosocial development (8 psychosocial stages of growth b. Ego identity C. Learning theories 1. Behavior theory ( AKA “behaviorism” ) – situational or environmental influences shape personality (NOT internal, individual variables) 2.
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