FASH455- Exam 1 Study Guide

FASH455- Exam 1 Study Guide - 455 EXAM 1 Cotton 1...

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455 EXAM 1 Cotton 1 cultivation of cotton requires: 1 long “frost-free” growing season 2 hot and sunny weather 3 moderate rain 4 fertilizers and insecticide: cotton production uses about 25% of world’s insecticides and 10% worlds pesticides 5 extensive processing to separate seeds from fiber 2 25% of a pound cotton useable for cotton spinning 3 other component: seeds, bolls, stems, leaves 1 used for: 2 Seeds: cottonseed oil for candy/peanut butter/soap 2.1 Hull of seeds: animal feed, fertilizer, putty 3 Bolls/Stem/Leave: feed for cattle 4 Cotton Production History: 1 cotton production growth grew with slave labor in 1800s 2 moved southwest-upland cotton required 3 1792: Eli Whitney developed cotton gin 4 1890s: USDA United States of Dept of Agriculture 4.1 research 4.2 information 4.3 cotton standards 4.4 genetic innovation 4.5 pesticides and fertilizers research 5 1900s: cotton town sprang in west 6 1930s: AAA Agricultural Adjustment Act (subsidies) 7 1942: Bracero Program allowed mexican labor in US for short time 8 growth of cooperatives 9 US production: 1 California has highest yield/acre in world 2 Texas leads US in total production 10 top 10 cotton producers: 480 pound bales total 1 Peoples Republic 2 India 3 US 4 Pakistan 5 Brazil 6 Uzbekistan 7 Australia 8 Turkey 11 top 5 leading exporters of cotton: 1 US
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2 India 3 Uzbekistan 4 Brazil 5 Australia 12 Current pillars of support for cotton: 1 gov subsidies 2 universities-land grant schools for research 3 cooperatives-economies of scale-ginning, packing, shipping 4 USDA 5 numerous cotton organizations: Cotton Inc, National Cotton council, etc 5.1 Cotton Trade Organization/Cottonworks: 5.1.1 1971-industry wide effort to maintain/improve cotton competitiveness 5.1.2 support merchandise of cotton instead of synthetic fibers 5.1.3 “The Fabric of Our Lives” 5.1.4 global fabric library-helps source fabric globally 13 The Cooperative: organized around 4 different functions 1 ginning 2 warehousing: compressing, storing, weighing 3 lint merchandising: fiber testing, standards, shipping 4 cottonseed production 5 provides uniformity to pricing according to quality 6 cost savings to farmers: efficiency of scale 7 cooperative deals directly with textile mill 8 expands global research 14 Cotton Subsidies (money given by gov for assistance): 1 on per acre basis-subsidies for cotton are 5-10 times more than corn, soybeans and wheat 2 cotton farmers can be paid over $.7/lbs for subsidies 3 cotton was at a 15yr high in 2011, greater than $1.5/lbs 4 US limits amount of cotton it can import 5 US pays textile mills to use US cotton--the textile mills use US produced cotton 6 US gov subsidies for cotton are larger than the GNP of developing countries (large number) 7 Impact of US subsidies INCREASES supply of US cotton 8 2004-US was violating WTO laws for cotton subsidies 15
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