Major Concepts Exam 3 - limos CEINEEPTS UNIT 3 exam Chapler...

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Unformatted text preview: limos CEINEEPTS: UNIT 3 exam Chapler 3 Personality {If‘lt's in now me, then rosow rr'} NU‘I‘I-I: “Compare and contrast“ means to diet—me and explain similarities and differences between tcroisfoonccpts (”fight 3 1. Define personnlily. Set niemotinnal. cognitive and behavioral lendeneies that pimple display over time and sis-use situations and that distinguish individuals from one anothcr. [kins-idler how personality is described anti recognize the tlifi'cmnec between personality and motility lrajiai [defined lam: intbc text anti mites}. l Dfiflibc the basic tmels nl'Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamie nppmaeh—appromh that regards personality as formed by needs. shin-ingot, anti tiesirEs largely fetch—tiling outside of awareness." 3 threes are important: unconscious drives, childhood experiences. and issues with sex and aggression in perstmlity development. New on early childhood experiences. unconscious motives and conflicts. and sexual and aggressive urges affect personality development? Why slid l-"reuti believe aggressive and sexual tu'ges were most importers? 'l'l'sef,r are the only.r biological Larges in which we are taught to suppress or control. Example} tttost biological needs you don't suppress like ifyoo‘re hungry. you eat. Describe Freud‘s view of psychological determinism-the idea that every single thought feeling. and behavior has an underlying psychological cause. Know how the structures of Ihe mint] relate in filnetinning 3. Compare and contrast conscious—thoughts. Rulings and motivations in v. hieli you are aware, pmwmhms-subjecLive material that you can easily bring to consciousness but aren't swore of mosLol' Ihe time {like memories}, and unconscious-hidden thoughts tmti desires." you ism-'1 bring these to consciousness but they still influence youl“‘*l~'reurl believed this was rrhusl Isle-erlirl level levels ofswarcaicss. Which is the most mful liner: in personality development? What personality structures frmn #4 operate at each of these levels?I 4_ Compare and contrast the id. {pleasure principle] — Tl'lflfil basic biological drives. all urges rtrni instincts (hunger. thirst, set-t, shelter}. Pleasure principle is wanting immediate gratification regjwdless ot'ennsequences, ego {reality principleHocision melting parl ol'otrr personality, tries to keep the in under control and nationalists eterything, reality principle is assessing “hat is realistically possible in the world, and Sumgo [ego Sorrel]— sense of conscious or guilt or right and “Tong. liinns hero-em ages 3-3. decennincel by relations with {extent} il'you are raised in a ruisupporlive or abusive ens-iron menr, you may not develop super-ego. Ego irlesl is Ihe ultinuue solo-dam ofwhat a person should be 1with regard to personality functioning. 5. What is the function of each structure? «Consider when each develops and he prepared to identily examples of behaviors relevant to each stmelme. ti. Who: are psychosexnal stages [you do NUI' need to know the 5 specific stages}? You have s social conflict at each one oftitese stages, ifyon deal with it appropriately then you are fine but ifyeuu deal Luapprtrpfialely you mtwe inlu lisatiorL Define fixation-ca. state in which energy is Focused on an earlier stage of development even as the child moves to the nest stage sot] explain how itenn lead to problems in personality functioning. Describe neurosis- ahnnnmfl behavior pattern relating to a conflict between the ego and id or superego. basically as mental illness. Describe the Oedipus [boys] - ages 3-5. issue the! specifically involves possessiyeriess. all children go flrrouglt this in which they are highly possessive oE' 1 Their opposite sex parent and jealous of the same sex parent-"yon have to Fee-strive conflict by identifying with same sex parent because ifycu don't there will be relationship problems and Electra [girls] complexes. tlnly lasted over t‘ledipus. 1 Ho's.r docs inner conflict etude anxiety in Fretsl’s approach? Anxiety is orienting to tintttinfieit‘l as anxiety, not what you experience 1.vhen you are about to take a test. Define defences mechanisms—unconscious psychological means by which a person tries to prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscious awareness, Ibercb:r decreasing an sieiy and describe how they are used to control anxiety. Describe the defense mechanisms of repression-mental process that removes painlul cxpclicnctn and unacceptable thoughts and impulses from the conscious mind example} severe trauma such as bad car accident or semtsl assaulted. you liirget a lot oft-chat happens to you, regression-defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conllicl and perceived flit-cal liy roaming. to an immature behavior or earlier serge of development, projection-hitches attributing one‘s ovni threatening leelings. motives or impulses to another person or group example} when husband is elteati ng on wife but accuses wife of' cheating all the time, and sublimation- channeling unacceptable sex eat and aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culttn'ally rails-anoint;r activities. {kinshler examples oi'each ti. Lhasidcr some caifiques chreutlian theory as well as some features that have been supporter] in scientific research. Critiques: not scientific because claims are hard to Falsify. based on limited sample (most were female patients). Some things that have been prov en are the defense mechanisms instance people do use them and that childhood experiences with parents do allch later developmenl. '9. Describe the development ol'thc humanistic them-its cl‘personality. What are the primary foci ofthesc combined theories in tmtlustsmtiing personality? it}. lkserii-e: Abraham Maslw’srresearcher hierarchy of needs-model ofcssenfial human needs arraigned according to their priority. in which basic psychological and safety needs must he nitistied hetbre a perscm can afi'ord to focus on higher-level psychological needs as dimusaal in class [yml do NtJI'I' need to Item-reach step in the pyramid butjust how it works in general}. Define sdi—aetualication—innatc motivation lbr humans to attain their highest possible emotional and intellectual potential as related In this hierarchy i]. Describe Earl Roger‘s-therapist concept ofnncondifional positive regard-acceptants: williout any conditions and discuss how this relates to environmental conditions for personal grim-1h i2. Define personality traits and ctstsldca examples. Describe the unit approach to personality. flompare and eorurast situaliun'mu and hmetianism with regard to personality and personality traits. Personality traits-NDT unique to individuals. Relatively consistent nmdcneies to think. feel. or behave in a characteristic way across a range oi'situations. .. adjcetives iii-:e honest. moody. impulsive. and excitable describe dispositions that represent personality traits. Sittaitionisrn— say that the situation determines your thoughts. leclings. views. The theory ci'sitaafiooism which hoids that a personis behavior is mostly governed by the particular situation, not by internal traits. Intcraetionisrn— we are [not wt certain trails. An interaction between the persrm and the situation, a rehttionship termed interactienisrn. I3. Describe the search 1hr core traits in personality. How is penamaiity represented in language? Describe hmv The timbniquc effector analysis ni'lillfl to the discovery of personality dimetsrieus (superlacmrsj. Factor analysis to discover “bother certain traits are associated and collectively constitute more general trails. called penonaliw dimensions or supmhfltars [group ofhighly related traits]. j superlaetens represent Elli-vi. ofsll personality 1:11:15. 14. llesen'he eneh oomponent ofthe Big—Five supert‘aetors on-etsonaljty: extremism neurotieism, agreeableuoss, eonseienfionsness, openness to uperiem-e. Consider examples of behavior for mammals rating high on eseh faeLm‘. ”mails-e Hans Eysoneh’s supoflhtfltir of psychufinism. 'Esn-syersiou {positive ernoflonelity} ineluules likeahiiin' poputaaity, warmth gmgnriousness, fi‘letidliness, ussm'liwnoss, activity, anal posiLiye emotions. like being in lhe public eye; like. lending people. EX: politicians or salesman. *Neurotieisg {negative emotionaiity} ineltaties wet}; insecure, leek self-eontideneE frssitnislio. fearful, hostility. depression. insecurity, sellltainseiousness, 'tmpulsiseness, and “sinemhilily. Delsil oriented johs; EiX: oseotttuunt -Agreeo§gtepfl hnsudes honest, ooepegjsliye. helgful, truss sympathy. streightfomonlnezee altruism. eoniplionee. cooperatives-less, rnorlesty1 nod tender- tnindednets. .. may have its l‘t'trL‘JL‘i in lemnmmnnt. i‘tssnelatetl wiLh helping behavior. 'l'hese people often work in helping or tesehing professitm. EX: nursing, teaching, psyehologgt. ifonseientiousntss includes defldahie, hardworkigg incompetence, tin-elect, dufifolmt, diligence, organization, nehievemenl striving, dei'tberntim, nmetualit}; depemlabifily, tend seif-diseipline. .. related to high productivity in s moiety ofooeupotionel mas: 'flflflflfilfi to depositing melodies emotive, imaginative, fhntasy, onrioefly, asstttstles. imaginoth-eness. srtistie sensltlyi1y, flexibility. feelings, risk-takers, and uneonverttionsl annuities. May also he assoeintetl with polities! attitudes ("high openness liberalism} and risk-taking. EX: mosieians and artists 'EIIrm'ersiun need lots ofstirnttlstion 1'l'tlenI'otiit:ison — don’t like lots of stimuli. fits anultn are more snxioun femiiil. *E_Sj't:hfllini$mr does not reset to stinnili in my way whatsoever. Hove rehelliouse non— um-ing attitude throughout life. Only eare about themselves. Definition: tneltmies tfl relylevrl to 5:3te deviance {e.g.._erianinnlitr and suhstnnee ntldietion} and a lsuh_o_l' motions! soeigjinslion je.g.,_t:espeet Iiir nth-s gin-:1 feelings ofothers}, This superthetor eomhines some elements of Joy-.- seotets on the agnosaliletress and oonseient'tnusness s‘tt'perfaetors in the Fist: Footer Model. 15. Compare and contrast the use ol'personaiily inventories and nrojoeliye tests is the measin-errnent ol'petsonality. What does eat-eh type of measure assess? How are these measures retested? What are the main problems with each type ol'mess-Lo-e {he sure to define social desirability in Haiti discussion)? Dents-ibis use}: ofthe following personality measures: Minnesota Moltijihssie Personality Inventory {WI-1)., Horseback Test, hematite Apperoeptiou 'I'istt {TAT} Eersonnflty inventories are peperond-penei] tests tquestionnsines) foraesessing pemmatity that require people to read statments and indieale whether eneh is true or liilse about themselves or to imliettte how much they agree or disagree n-‘ifli eaeli s13lemenl. ADVAN'I‘AUIES: protiuee n personality profile; easy to seore and statistieuliy analyze. tilt-QATWANTHGES: limited restainses: soeiel desirability hios. Proieethrejests assess personality and psychopathology by asking the respondent to melee sense ol'unlbigtuius stimuli. Show [tilt blots Lo people. Based on lit-eund‘s psychedynamic theory. .-"Ll)‘t’i‘ti\"1'.di{ili5i: We tony to lie! DISMJVAN'IEGH: lakes :1 long time to score and is hard tn score. Knrsellaeh 'i‘II-st- ]:IlI hlflbk 'l‘.JI.'I'- Ehniv a picture ol'p-enple and ask person to tell yes a starry about the story. The {TEMPE-2i is eoninIoniy used to amass payeliepatholngy— the Innst enmmnn persnnality iTIVEflltiFy_tt_l_-{}]_il in. Define and describe temperament. [Innsidm Russ‘ that dime-minus nf'temnetament: sneiahitity, impulsivil‘y. anal: strontium—seeking. How is shyness exhibited during in fancy and how might culture and envirnnmertt afieet this trait? Describe Mnsaliun—aecking, 't‘emperament refers to iIIIIIItI: hiclcgiealiy hasntl irIelinaliIJns to engage in certain styles n1' thinking feelings. or behaving. ' tense for heinsz' III the &mequ ei- ther 5: rather illili'l alone. In: ulsi-Iritv 15 IE: em, ' in res-pend to stimuli I withnnt reflecnun or etmeern Fer consequences Sensation-see n - - the rsnit nt nevetty, W. .cmpam and contrast I I -II no I nettvat‘ion system [BASjand lhehehminfll inhibition system {HIS} as they relate to personality development. Describe the relevant biologieal and hrain fitne'tiens ofes‘traverts, these senring high no neural-idem, and these sewing high {In [eyelmtiei-Im in Flymeka's three taetor model. GFLI‘I‘I' came up with HAS and HIS system B-k'iir is based on aetivatinn or reward- triggers pI'IsitiIrI: feelings hut underlies impulsivity. W aI-I Is ' an 111 ihi ion or tIrIIs :I'neI'IL l it. Ileflcrii'ne the research meflindfl used In hebavinra gent-[cs to determine the relative influeraze otgenes versus the environment on the develnpcment nt pens-mighty {ie., twin and adeptien studies]. Define and deselihe heritability. Censitier how the shared family em- Easement may differ helm individuals raised in the same Family and how this might afleet personality. Behavioral genetics is a snhtield nfpsyehningy 1hal investigate-s the influence nf'hctcdiry versus I31: enviwnment Iart the development ofpc'rscmaiity. EX: twins sepIiinIaIi at birth. _I__Ieri_tuh_ili'_tv— AKA. enrrelation' ' fvariat'ien i characteristic that arises from genes {the Ig er the heritability. the greater ereeni I'nriati rt t~ rsennlity tmtt arises turn genes}. 19. Desen'he the strain: Lew ef'perso rty. Define expectancies. locus of contrali and seif—aflicaey. The socincognitive vi=evI acknowledges the influence nfhiningieai factors an iIeI'snnaiin. hut emphasise the rule II] :he petsen s esperitmees. consistent patterns of cugnitit-I: prismatflirtg, |l1I: view I1! sell and Mhaniur. WM irIiltI-en . v at. then tits, and feelings and, hence rs contrnl over e envirnnrnenty Is snuree nlIIiveId In be ti-I- ' 1 M'cr life‘s events when catrms ei'streii events are anihignious. Internal leans ntenntrni— it. .II my fault. External teens a centre -ev . . . _. FWWRTHJQEH eat: Imuld like to per am [much like sellLecIIIiIieneel. 2i}. Consider how column may affect personality develnpmenL Compare am! contrast enltcL-tivist cultures and individualist cultures with regard to thei r views and ell'nets on aeti—eoneepl and personality development. in EWIIH the grind III III: irulivitltml: the gum]; needs. rights, and responsibilities Int: eonsidertai mere important than those ofti'te indiw ideal. in contrast, innit. ' value enmpeeitinn individual asiIicve'merIt, rights and responsibilities; emphasize the individual needs n:- I II and tespcnsihiliiits at the expense Ui-ll'i‘: group. ' ' ' Scan-Tron and student LI! lie-I: ans sham FD} to the esmn. MU“ CUNCEI'I'S: UNIT 3 m Mr 9 I. Describe howthc themes of transitiooitransformatjoo and eontinuilyfcoosistency relate to the field of developmental psychology as discussed in lecture. 2. Describe the [our major stages tirdetrelo'pment. antenatal, infancy-itilildhoo-tl. adolescence. adulthood] in terms of ages or developmental transitions from one stage to the nest. as discussed in lecture. il-I'hat stage involves the greatest physical changes? 1|Mint stage involves the greatest mgnin'uee'moral changes? 3. Be familiar with the biological lmsics of human reproduction (gametes, human genetic heritage, gender distentiinaljtm]. Define and describe maturation 4. Define zygote. Compare and contrast the three phases of prenatal development as dimossod in lecture: germinal stage. embryonic stage, fetal stage. Tile-scribe the major changes ol'each stage. Define placenta and myelination as discussed in lecmre. With stage [suscnts the greatest vulnerability to]- the developing itd'tmt‘r‘ [Ionsider some of the developing abilities oi'the rents S. Ileatn‘ihe howthc lhnetioning of the placenta relates to environmental factors in prenatal development as discussed in lecture. Define and describe halogens. Describe how the enviromnentai humus of maternal illness. maternal dnig-‘aloohoi use cafieinc and smoking, dietary issues and pollution, and maternal stress can affect prenatal development. .. what can go wrong? What is fetal alcohol symdrume? ls mild use of alcohol or tobacco during pregnancy safe for the dew-sloping intent? In general. how does the li.!-i. {one ofthe world’ s richest most Iflfldlfifllly advanced counuies} compare to other countries in terms of inliint mortalityr as discussed in lecture? ti. Del'me reflexes as discussed in lecture. Be gmcndly familiar 1with intent sensor}- oapeleities and Ital-lentil present a! birflt. ?. Define and dean-ibis temperament. (Jot-ripen: and etmtrast appmaelt style and wittsirawal style temperaments {i.e.._ “"eas].r and “difficult? Consider how nurturing, expet'ietmt can all“ tempemncnt and development it. Descn'he the cephalueaudal rule and the proicimodistal rule [sequence of physics! in terms of motor development as dimussed in lecture. (Jonsidcr examples. Be generally.I familiar 1orith developmental milestones and their relationship to the processor maturation from #3 above. h'laLut'aliDn- graduai unt'oldhtg ot'dte genetic blue print [how we develop). ('ephsloeaudal role- head to foot slot gain control ol'upper parts of our raid}- hefore our lttwrrr bod}. meimaldistal mie.- n'e are born 1.t-‘itJ'L control over the center of our body. .-'tpp<.-nda§__=.es are lost teamed to control. 9. Regarding visual perception in infants describe the visual cliff experiment and the habituation {looking time] technique and consider 1i ndi rigs of these studies. In general, penicptnal development starting in infancy otmlirtues into which stage of life before it is complete? Know hoth of these. Horn wiLE-i most ioteosc sense oi‘sntcli that we will: ever have. Visual cliff- hlfitots put on liege piece of glass halfon tahle half arr. Develops around 3-4 months. Hahitostiort technio ue— all animals will get used to a stimulus. flashing a triangle then a circle onto a sermon. if they change their gear: lRlJIlUtliiIEEljf to the circle. they have developed habituation. Fiat-ties only focus on htmtan eyes. and mouths until about 4 months. 1E1 Compare mutt contrast I'tehatriorist theories and nativist theories ol'language deuetnpment. DeseIibe Noam Chomakj-"fi eoneept ofthe language flquisifion device. Describe the Inflow-Eng characteristics of language development: critical period. [.‘homsky is somewhat the lather ol'lingu'mties. tte earn: up with the language acquisition tie-vipe— innate or inborn mechanism containing a set ol'gntmrnatieal roles woman to all human beings. Critiratl period— narrow window oftime when eefiain type ol'learnirag or some aspect of development is possible. First 4 years 01° ”Fe is the most important in learning language. [MPHR'i'r'tN'l'i l I. Imcrlhe how Jul] Piaget studied cognitive develoInnenl through infimey and childhood. Define schemes and consider examples. Describe the WW3 ol' assimilation and momma-Julian in terms of'Piaget’s developmental theory. Consider extenplos of each Jean Piaget is the father ofdewlopmenlal poyeholcg. l.i11'.|e kids Think like little scientists. Sebemas- theory about how the rworld works. Assimilation and aoeonnnoriation- the driving forces of eognitit'e development. Assimilation- use current sehentas to htterpret everything around you. .fieootnmodalion- the evolution ul'litflughl. {hanging existing schemes to explain new and diti‘exnerienees. .-‘tssimilationv menial errors: little lrid thinks the red tomatoes are same as little red hasehalls accommodation 1it'otild be him reeognising the tiitii l1 [Ropers am] tamlrast Piaget’s tour stages of eogn ttive development: sensurimetur. preaperatinnal, concrete operations, formal operations. Daring Winn ages does one]: stage mot? What. are the major milestones of each stage? What are the mgnitive limitations and abilities oi'eaeh stage? Sensorirmttor- first 2 years oflife “out of sight, out oi'mintl“ from kid’s minds. if'yot: ean't see something it doesn‘t exist anymore. EX: peek-a—boo game. This is why kids get so upset when left with diff. eat-agivers. When kids start imitating other people’s heitasiors. they scan: to Wine. Obieet pctmsnenot: aka objects do...
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