Exam 1-4 - ml i" beneral Psycnmogyr r'an 4U I f...

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Unformatted text preview: ml i " beneral Psycnmogyr r'an 4U: I f EXdlil 'H'l 1 must um: I l age . On the Scantron write your name (last-name first) and student number and till-in the corresponding circles completely. If you do not follow these instructions, your exam may not be graded. Answer each question and fill-in the corresponding circle on the Scantron. Each question is worth one point 1. According to Erik Erikson, the main conflict of adolescence is 1. basic trust 2. generativity 3. autonomy @ identity .-— 2. In the Muller—Lyer Illusion experiment conducted online. the independent variable was __ and the dependent variable was __ 1. the number of circles to be remembered; the number of circles correctly recalled 2. the number of circles correctly recalled; the number of circles to be remembered. 3. the proportion of trials where the Muller-Lyer line was reported longer than the comparison line; the length of . the comparison line ‘ .the length of the comparison line; the proportion of trials where the Muller-Lyer line was reported longer than the comparison line 5. none of the choices are correct + 3. When an axon is at rest, positively-charged sodium ions are _. 1. more concentrated inside the axon than outside 2. trapped inside small channels in the axon’s membrane ® equally concentrated inside and outside the axon 9‘. _ 4. more concentrated outside the axon than inside 5. both 1 and 2 are correct 4. Action potentials X. become weaker as they travel down the axon 2. make the inside of the axon negative, relative to the outside i3). generally travel away from the cell body X. both 1 and 2 are correct 5. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 5. A pharmaceutical researcher wants to know if an herbal remedy improves performance on a memory test in older people. In an experiment to test this hypothesis, what would be the dependent variable? X. whether they receive the herbal remedy or a placebo (control) - performance on the memory test )3. whether they were young or old . both i and 2 are correct 5. none are correct 6. The receptors for hearing are in the __ 1. pinna 2. ear drum 3. semicircular canals @cochlea 7. According to Piaget, applying an old schema to a new object or problem is called ___. 1. object permanence 2. concrete operations 3. accommodation @ assimilation 8. To test whether a young child has the concept of object permanence, Piaget would watch whether the child can 74; play with a toy the same way the experimenter plays with it 72. state the amount of clay or water stays the same after a distortion of its shape ~.- answer abstract, hypothetical questions about the object a reach around a barrier to get an object that the child no longer sees 9. The Greenville Community College soccer team scored 1», 1,, 2, 3 and 8 goals (a total of 15 goals) in their first five games. What was their mean number of goals? Wm , mil-2mg? 1, 1 2. 2 @ 3 4. 5 5. 8 . ; nicer: wireduenl l5 -': 6 a 3 - General Psychology:r Fall 2011 f Exam #1 I Blue Form I Page 2 10. According to the Neuron Doctrine proposed by Ramon Y Cajal _. 1. basic behavioral instincts are “programmed" in the cerebellum 2. when we learn something new the information is "imprinted" onto the cerebrum ialectrical communication in the nervous system is random and unpredictable behavior arises from communication between nerve cells . both 1 and 2 are correct 11. A single neuron can have many _. CD dendrites )Q. cell bodies K cones X axons 15. both 1 and 2 are correct 12. A psychologist studies 21 children on their first day of school, and examines the same children again on the last day. This is a research design. . X double-blind {cross-sequential ®. longitudinal Xeross-sectionai 13. When in a new environment, three—year—old Adam uses his mother as a secure base while he happily explores his surroundings. When she leaves the room he cries briefly. When she returns he runs into her arms for a happy reunion and then returns to his exploration. Adam would likely be considered fl_. 1. avoidantly attached ® securely attached 3. disorganized 4. anxiously attached *6}. In the “Little Albert“ experiment viewed online, the young child displayed conditioned fear to large metallic objects, such as copper pots. 1. True @ False 15. If a theory is "falsifiable”, then it __ makes specific, testable predictions X contradicts other well-established theories . contradicts common sense )4. requires more new assumptions than necessary 16. According to the principle of parsimony, we should prefer a theory that __ is most popular among the population as a whole ® makes fewer or simpler assumptions fits any data we could possibly imagine ' K relies on anecdotal evidence 17. In a survey of American cities, it was found that as the number of violent crimes increased so did the number of stores selling violent video games. This reflects a correlation. © positive 2. negative 3. zero 18. Someone in Erik Erikson’s age of basic trust versus mistrust would be in which age group? X adolescent )1 preadolescent toddler @ infant 19. A researcher conducts a survey of the Canadian population, interviewing 1000 people with the same distribution of men and women, old and young, urban and rural people as the whole Canadian population. Of t e following terms, this sample is best described as ____ convenient X distorted X random @ representative a, 20. According to lecture, the negative symptoms of schizophrenia _. 7Q are associated with "too much" dopamine released from neurons 2. include decreased interest in pleasurable activities and little motor behavior 3. are associated with “too little" dopamine released from neurons “fl both 1 and 2 are correct @ both 2 and 3 are correct 21. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRl) provides a high-resolution image of brain activity by recording radioactivity emitted from injected chemicals. 1. True 9 False General Psychology] Fall 2011 / Exam #1 1' Blue Form I Page 3 22. The left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex cannot communicate with each other after the _ is cut. 1. hypothalamus @ corpus callosum 3. spinal cord 4. sympathetic nervous system 5. parasympathetic nervous system ' 23. According to the research presented in lecture, cannabinoid receptors are found in the limbic system. 1. True ® False 24. Some people believe that genius is associated with insanity, although they have no scientific evidence to support their claim. This is an exampie of _. - K a demand characteristic .- 2. an illusory correlation X a normal distribution @ a negative correlation " 4' 25. A subliminal message __ 1. is above the simple detection threshold 2. is below the recognition threshold ‘( is below the simple detection threshold @both 1 and 2 are correct K both 2 and 3 are correct 2.. 26. According to trichromatic theory, white light is perceived as an absence of color. 1. True ® False 27. A boat is moving away from Bob. His perception that the boat is moving away, rather than shrinking, is redicted by _. é visual constancy ‘fl induced movement 3’ the phi effect )4" feature detectors 28. An experimenter shows a child two equal glasses of water and then pours the water from one of them into a glass of a different shape. Then the experimenter asks whether the new glass has more or less water than the other one. What concept is the experimenter testing? ‘- 1. assimilation 2. object permanence @' conservation 4. hypothetical reasoning q.- 29. Which would Piaget describe as “egocentric thought"? 1. “I can sing better than anyone else in my class” 2. “I want to have more Candy than my friends" K "I think, therefore I exist” @“Birds sing so that i can hear them" 30. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. @ True 2. False 31. Susan wants to use priming in her advertising to increase people’s recognition of her pizza shop. She should . . flash the image “Eat at Susan’s" for a fraction of a second during a popular television show put subtle sexual images (e.g., a woman’s breasts) in her advertisement photos K have a very handsome young man displayed prominently in her advertisements ‘41 place an advertisement saying that Susan's pizza tastes very, very bad (3 have her television commercial appear after program on cooking, dining and/or Italy 32.‘ The rods in the retina are specialized for _. 1. vision in the center of the retina 2. highly detailed vision @ vision in dim light 4. color vision 33. After damage to the cerebrum (cerebral cortex), Joshua has an impairment in planning and organizing otor movements. Where is the damage probably located? 2% parietal lobe (cortex) 7i occipital lobe (cortex) X temporal lobe (cortex) @ frontal lobe (cortex) 5. both 1 and 2 are correct General Psychology/ Fall 2011 / Exam #1 I Blue Form / Page 4 .4 34. John experienced a head injury in which his nucleus of the solitary tract was damaged (but all other brain regions were unaffected). Based on the material presented in lecture, what would we likely observe with John? 1. He would be more susceptible to a visual subliminal message (than before damage). 2. He would be less susceptible to a visual submilinal message (than before damage). He would have difficulty using information on taste from his tongue. He would psychologically desire (i.e., crave) marijuana. . He would have a strong aversion to marijuana. 35. Which is the most important for our body’s “fight or flight” response (e.g., increase in blood pressure and heart rate). according to lecture? ©isympathetic nervous system 2. parasympathetic nervous system 36. Our perception of flavor consists of several different sensations (e.g., taste, odor and temperature). C? True 2. False -— 37. What is SR—141716A(Rimonabant)? munchies 1. a drug that activates the same receptors in brain as delta-Q-tetrahydrocannabinol 2. a drug that increases consumption of high—fat and high-calorie foods 3. a drug that blocks the .- 3 receptors (25d 5}! ; delta-Q—tetrahydrocannabinol @both 1 and 2 are correct 5. both 2 and 3 are correct _.— 38. According to the research presented in class, drugs that activate cannabinoid receptors in the brain ___. 1. increase consumption of high-fat and high-calorie foods 2. are self-administered by sub—human primates (e.g., monkeys) 3. block the consolidation and retrieval of memory about space and location 4. both 1 and 2 are correct @1, 2 and 3 are correct -— 39. The advantage of the experimental method (an experiment) as opposed to a correlational study is that an experiment __. 1‘) is better suited to studies of unique or unusual individuals 2. can consist of as little as one observation of a single individual @can lead to the discovery of cause-and—effect relationships 74;. is easier to do and poses fewer ethical problems 40. An independent variable is one that __ ‘21: is irrelevant to what happens in the experiment 2. the experimenter cannot control or measure @the experimenter changes or controls )4; the experimenter measures after the treatment I 41. According to Subliminal Seduction discussed in lecture, _. 1. overt sexual images (e.g., a pretty girl in a bikini) will persuade customers to purchase products X rodents prefer to consume sweet and salty tastes (e.g., potato chips) and avoid s0ur and bitter tastes (e.g., many poisons found in nature), while humans have an equal preference for both types of tastes ® advertisers include very subtle sexual images (tag, a penis hidden in the background) in advertisements, to persuade customers’ purchases 4. the human brain cannot perceive a stimulus above the recognition threshold 42. According to lecture, taste sensation cells ...._- — 1. are located across the tongue. but there’s generally more on the outside (e.g., its tip) than on the center of the tongue —- 2. respond to one of four stimuli—sweet, sour, bitter or salty , 3. are found in “canals" called papilla 4. both 1 and 2 are correct © 1, 2 and 3 are correct / 43. An infant will likeiy spend more time looking at a picture of a face rather than a picture of geometric objects. @True 2. False ' General Psychology;r Fall 2011 [Exam #1 / Blue Form I Page 5 44. Parents who are warm and loving but relatively undema ding are considered _ 1. authoritative 2. authoritarian permissive 4. indifferent latter} \. 45. According to the “Change Detection” experiment conducted online, what is the most important factor in determining if a person sees an object change in a scene? ' remembering the detaiis of the scene ‘Z attending to the object that is changing _. whether or not the person likes the scene .none are correct 46. According to the position known as determinism _ K after engaging in any behavior, a person feels the urge to engage in opposite behaviors . people can choose for themselves what kind of people they want to be development of any behavior depends equally on heredity and environmental factors 4. every behavior has a cause 47. A person who specializes in the study of thought and knowledge is a _ psychologist. 1. quantitative @ cognitive 3. physiological 4. social 48. A psychologist who specializes in ergonomics (human factors) would be most likely to try to create a better CIT-controller for a video game 2. test to measure exam anxiety 3. definition of drug addiction 4. method of depression analysis 49. Which best reflects the View of John B. Watson? X “An animal loses its way in a maze because it is ‘anxious’ and ‘scared’” 2. “An individual’s statements on her thoughts provide important insights to basic psychological rules." QM psychologist should focus on external, observable behaviors.” . “Psychology is the study of the mind." K both 1 and 2 are correct 50. A synapse is __ 1. an area of dead tissue in the brain 2. the combination of a neuron and its nearest glial cell @a junction where one neuron communicates with another 4. a chemical secreted from one neuron to receptors on a near-by neuron 51. (BONUS) Otto Loewi demonstrated that neurons communicate by releasing chemicals at the synapse. His research involved _ 1. collecting fluid from synapses in one frog and transferring them to another frog 3; injecting purified chemicals at a synapse and using fine electrodes to measure the response of the postsynaptic neuron ‘ © radioactively labeling chemicals and tracing where they went )4; electron microscope analysis...
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