exam 2-3 - H{L—.V I General Psychology Fall 2011 Exam#2...

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Unformatted text preview: H {L— .V I General Psychology] Fall 2011/ Exam #2/ Pink Form/ Page J. On the Scantron write your namgllast—name firsi) and student number and fill—in the corresponding circles completely; Answer eachguestion and fill—in the corresponding circle on the Scantron. If you do not follow these instructions, y_our glam may not be graded. Each question is worth one point. 1. What color are the pages for your exam questions? @ Pink 2. Blue 3. White a. Yellow 2. Dan moved into a new apartment next to the noisy highway. On the first few nights in the apartment, Dan was bothered by the noise. However, after a few nights, Dari says that he doesn’t notice the noise. What type of learning describes Dan’s situation? @ habituation 2. operant conditioning 3. classical conditioning 4. sensitization 5. none are correct _ _ v9 v9 cs gfii V3 3. Dr. Smith provrded a shock to a rat and the ratiumped. Then, Dr. Smith sounded a tone and provided a ck. After several tone-shock pairings, when Dr. Smith provided only the tone, the rat vocalized (“squeaked”). In this experiment, the unconditioned stimulus was fl ©the shock 2. jumping after being shocked 3. the tone 4. vocalizing after the tone 5.both l and 2 are correct U43 k‘ in an eyeblink conditioning experiment r. Smith (1) puffs air into the experiment participant’s eye for two seconds, (2) waits W, and (3) sounds a tone for two seconds. What type of conditioning did Dr. Smith use? 1. delay conditioning @trace conditioning -3. simultaneousconditioning~ lit-backward conditioning 5. both 1 and 2 are correct “A Jr According to lecture, how did Herman Ebbinghaus study learning and memory? 1. He constructed a puzzle box where a cat had to learn to make a series of behaviors (e.g., pull a chain or press a lever) to escape 2. He constructed a straight-alley maze where rodents ran to receive a food pellet or escape a shock (3) He tested his ability to learn and re«learn lists of consonant-voweI-consonant trigrams 4. He'trained rats in an operant boxto-reSpond‘to receive a fOO'd'p'eliet or escape a shock S. Hetested college students-on their ability to re-memberiists of'digits 6. According to the Information-Processing Model of memory discussed in lecture, __. “Lthe first destination for information from our eyes and ears is sensory memory Ainformation is kept in short-term memory through rehearsal 3. the capacity of short—term memory is larger than long—term memory @both 1 and 2 are correct )1 1, 2 and 3 are correct 7. The procedure for inducing extinction in classical conditioning is to present __ 1. the conditioned stimulus and then the unconditioned stimulus p5} U at: 2. the unconditioned stimulus and then the conditioned stimulus 7” ‘ h 3. nothing 4. the unconditioned stimulus, followed by nothing ©the conditioned stimulus, followed by nothing 8. Which is the best example of positive punishment? {g _ “LA rat presses a lever to escape from receiving a painful shoclc fiE’C’ij'l‘i 1E if? (WEIR; ‘3" John does his homework to avoid being expelled from the university. (trial Q Eff .i‘witqflf‘. p _ ‘8X Emily hates cleaning her room, but when she cleans her room her Mom give her a candy bar. 3.30554. mitigate When Jose touches an electrical outlet with a screwdriver, he receives a painful shock. 5. both 1 and 2 are correct Quflififrlmflr‘ uenerai Psycnmogy/ ran AUJ.J./ cxdin n.4,: rum rum: ,r rage a 3/ man-ft“ 9. When Emily says a "bad" word, her father takes away her favorite doll. Her father is using __ to decrease the number of “bad” words Emily says. 1. positive reinforcement 3. positive punishment 2. negative reinforcement egative punishment According to social—learning theory, __ we learn because of unconditioned reinforcement 2. we usually learn because we are conditioned by society @much human learning occurs because of imitation Woperant conditioning is irrelevant for human learning 5.1, 2 and 3 are correct 5. both 3 and 4 are correct vhwnriatrnetl. «primary; ‘76 Grace participated in an experiment where she read a list of trigrams, counted backwards from 124 by threes for 20 seconds, and then recalled as many trigrams as she could. In which classic experiment did she participate and what was it measuring? (9 the Brown-Peterson task, which measures short—term memory capacity X the Memory Span task, which measures long-term memory capacity W536! l mo“, Fad? 141‘me .3. the Memory Span task, which measures short-term memory capacnty -' X, the Brown-Peterson task, which measures the duration information stays miserymemggym XtheMemb‘ry’Ca‘pacity—t-asie-which measures the speed information transfers from short—term to longwterm memory 12. Which is the best example of cryptomnesia? © Joe read a short story by White when he was young. When in coltege, Joe writes a story very similar to White’s. Joe didn’t realize that he was “stealing” from White. it. Mary flips through a deck of playing cards. Ten minutes later she can recall—in the order they appeared—each card that she saw. 75 Following a stroke, Jamal can store new memories of facts and figdres leg, the score of fast night’s game), but cannot recall the memories (e.g., his first grade teacher’s name) from before the stroke. fiMfiESE-fl ~}(,.Julie can perform motor tasks (e.g., riding a bike) she learned before she deveioped Alzheimer’s disease, but cannot remember facts and figures (e.g., her first grade teacher’s name) from before she developed the disease. Jesse was the victim of violent attack, but he has absolutely no memory of what happened when Egg agcfiked. .' 'i to: *flmsed on the Information-Processing Model and the video viewed in [email protected]_. . I \M I as problems with episodic memory 1” @has difficulty transferring episodic memory from short-term to long-term memory we”; U :2: has problems with procedural memory 4. both 1 and 2 are correct X1, 2 and 3 are correct I 5 According to the video on hypermneisa viewed in lecture _. ‘fl_1_._people with “photographic” memory have a larger cerebellum than people with very poor memory ianyone can have excellent memory with practice and/or the use of mnemonic devices 3 people with “photographic” memory have a smaller cerebellum than people with very poor memory whom 1 and 2 are correct 5. both 2 and 3 are correct a" 15. John is learning to shoot a basketball. According to lecture, this memory is “stored” _. i in his medial temporal lobe and limbic system (hippocampus) ‘X in his cortex in the circuits responsible for performing the basketball-shooting behavior Xboth 1 and 2 are correct s . in his muscles retirees c's General Psychology/ Fall 2011/ Exam #2 / Pink Form / Page 3 Worgasw sweat i ” in class we reviewed a clinical study on Transient Giobal Amnesia (TGA) that developed in a woman during or shortly x?“ a ter sexual intercourse. According to this study W. 1. the symptoms ofTGA include anterograde amneisa ®the memory loss is due to focal damage (i.e., a stroke or "mini stroke”) to the medial temporal lobe the symptoms include a loss of power to use or understand words (aphasia) and/or loss of memory for how to perform complex motor behaviors leg, open a closed door and walk through the doorway) 4. both 1 and 2 are correct 1,2 and 3 are correct 17. When Ella is feeling severe, painful anxiety she goes shopping. Shopping takes away her "pain" and she does it frequently, 5. Her shopping to_a_l1gyi_a.te._”pain” is based on _ 2S positive reinforcement @negative reinforcement r‘err-iiarcemeni n€3fl%iv§ Xpositive punishment 4. negative punishment all are correct 18. in operant conditioning, an experimenter provides a reinforcer after you make a sound, then after a louder sound, and then after a more pleasant sound, and so forth until you are singing. This would be an example of . gr,.»jw_ fl — , ,. - A {3 shaping 2. generaiization 3. generaiization 4. the Premack Princi le - . *Suppose your boss provides free coffee and donuts each morning at precisely 10:30 am. The first people there get the best choice of donuts. Your going to the place where the donuts are each day is reinforced under which schedule? 1. fixed ratio @fixed interval variable ratio Xvariable interval )5: none are correct 20. Paula is nineteen years-old today and is given a test on the American Civil War. This is a test of Paula’s __.‘ ® semantic memory working memory >3<procedura| memory ‘fr’. episodic memory 5. none are correct 21. What is the Stroop Effect (like the one completed online)? 1L The strategy of assuming that the number of available memories of an event indicates how common the event actually is ‘iLThe tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of the category itself _1 the greater ease of identifying a letter when it is part of a whole word than when it is presented by itself a he difficulty in naming the colors in which words are written instead of reading the words themselves 22. A heuristic is m. Q a way of simplifying a problem . a mechanical procedure for testing all possible solutions to a problem ‘3. a person who is not quite an expert in some field 4. a puzzle or problem that has no solution 5. none ofthe choices are correct /' . Which is the best example of the "mere exposure effect”? . John has never tasted indian food. When his friend suggests going to an Indian restaurant, John says, "no way, i know lndian food will make me sick!” Deg if )é. In 2001 Jill tried Indian food. Later that night she caught the stomach flu and was ver sick. Since getting very sick that night, even the thought of Indian food makes her nauseous. Cdfidfiiigf‘rfify agrarian 7g. From 2001-2009 Jane ate Indian food every night. One night in 2009 she ate Indian food, caught the stomach fluaB was very sick. Since getting very sick that night, even the thought of lndian food makes her nauseous. 4; ® The first time Jamal ate curry chicken, the spicy food was so hot he cried. After eating curry chicken each night for two weeks, he doesn’t even notice the spice in the food. 5. none are an example i k in c g \JUHL'IUI F'DyLllUlUEYi IOII LUJ._L I LAUIII TTLIIII1I\ n UIIIII u ub\a l 24. Amy is opening a new pizza shop on December 15 and wants to be sure to consider the spacing effect, discussed in lecture, in the advertising for her shop. What should she do? “.SL Make sure her advertisement is the only coior advertisement in a blackaand-white newspaper \Zc Make sure that she has the only commercial broadcast during the break between television shows \a. Avoid using distracting images (e.g., very sexy people or lots of colorful pictures) in her magazine advertisement ®Have her advertisements air only once or twice weekly starting on October 1 ‘5‘ Have a promotion where potential customers create their own commercials for her pizza shop *" 25. Barry is going to use the testing effect, discussed in lecture, for an upcoming test on vocabulary words in his French class. Today is October 15 and the test is November 1. What will he do? “L. He will study every third day (e.g., study Monday, take Tuesday and Wednesday off, then study Thursday) ‘ZsThe list of words will be in a different order each time he studies \is‘He will say the word aloud and think of a concrete image (e.g., a picture of a red Cardinals' baseball hat for the French word for hat) ‘A‘He will think about how each word is related to something he sees each day on his walk to French class GS) none ofthe choices are correct 796 You can either take a bus or a taxi to a friend’s house, and you decide on the bus. After waiting at the bus stop for ifteen minutes, a taxi passes by, but you continue to wait for the bus, having waited so long already. Your decision is influenced by (the) _. Sunk cost effect availability heuristic 3. confirmation bias , .overconfidence none of the choices are correct ’35. Mary and Rob are thinking about where to go on vacation. Rob saw a commercial for a cruise to Antigua, thought "I ike beaches, so that looks good, and booked the trip right away. Mary viewed five travel web sites, then read four travel guides and finally consulted with two travel agents, before booking a cruise to Antigua. According to the material presented in lecture _. 3 Mary relied more on algorithms and Rob relied more on heuristics . Mary was maximizing and Rob was—dwindiing—g n )3. In the time between booking the vacation and going on the vacation; Mary will be happier with her choice than Rob will be with his choice ® both 1 and 2 are correct 1,2 and 3 are correct 28. While doing a mental rotation experiment (like the one completed online), participants will often report _. \1, that they observe the two objects and eventually have a spontaneous insight into whether or not the two objects are the same @ that they mentally rotate one of the objects until they can determine if the two objects are the same or not ‘3‘, that they are never really able to tell if the objects are the same or not and they make their same/different judgment on instinct 4. none are correct In the Don’t Shoot experiment (like the one completed online), the independent variable was _. 1. whether the person in the photo was white or black (African—American) 2. whether the person in the photo was holding a gun or something else X, the reaction time between appearance ofthe person and the response @ both 1 and 2 are correct none of the choices are correct beneraiesycnomgy/raii4u1t/Exairia4/mik runny Verge 3 30. Which is correct/true? 1. The first time Joe took an lQ test he scored 125. The second time he took the same test he scored 75. This test has E poor reliability. 2. On an lQ test Joe has a mental age of 15. His actual age is 10. His IQ score is at least one standard deviation (or more) m above the mean. 3. Norms and standardizations of IQ test establish a mean score of 100. 4. both 1 and 2 are correct ® 1, 2 and 3 are correct 31. The Flynn effect is the phenomenon that _. CD mean [(1 scores rise from one generation to the next, unless the test is made more difficuit Ea conditioned response will decrease with repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus (without the unconditioned stimulus) \Jc there is better recall of information when study sessions are spreadvout over along period (e.g., two weeks) than when studying is massed immediately before testing (i.e., “cramming” right before the exam) ‘4\. we have a preference for things (e.g., foods) that are familiar, compared to things that are novel ‘3. none reflect the Flynn effect 32. Charies is awake, alert and paying attention. According to lecture, we should generally observe _ activity in his electroencephalogram (EEG). \1\alpha @beta delta K—complexes and sleep spindles “51. none are correct 33. During W sleep we observe K-complexes and sleep spindles in electroencephalogram (EEG) activity. The person has muscle tone, but there is little eye movement. 1. Stage 1 @Stage 2 3. Stage 3/4 (slow-wave) 4. REM « 4.1n conditioned taste aversion W. __1_,,the unconditioned stimulus (US) is what makes the organism sick (e.g., the stomach flu or lithium injection) Athe conditioned stimulus (CS) is a unique taste or flavor _ g 3. the conditioned response can be observed several years after the CS—US pairing both 1 and 2 are correct 5.1,2 and 3 are correct {-r What did Thorndike mean by the Law of Effect? “ix. Changes in an animal’s level of motivation can alter its Speed of learning ‘ ® Responses that are followed by reinforcement become more probable \l The easiest way to train an animal to do a difficult trick is to start with easier tricks 4. The rate of responding depends of the schedule of reinforcement 36. Alicia is training her dog to “speak” (bark) using positive reinforcement and the Premack Principle. What is Alicia doing? _ \1\ Each time her dog "speaks", Alicia gives the dog a piece of tasty food. €flmi11t/ {Qffi'ffii‘réf' \2‘ Every three or four times her dog “speaks”, Alicia gives the dog a piece of tasty ood. ‘SKAt the start of training Alicia gives her dog a treat each time it “speaks”. With continued training the dog needs to make more—and-more responses to receive the tasty food. I r 34‘. Each time her dog “speaks”, Aiicia pets her dog and says "good dog". SECCHCERE’S fé‘fffitfli‘flffi- @ none of the choices are correct General Psychology/ Fall 2011 / Exam #2 / PmK I—orm / Page o " 37. During REM sleep _. _1Lwe have electro-oculogram (ECG) activity that is similar to when we are awake Awe have electroencephalogram (EEG) activity that is similar to when we are awake mwe have electro-myogram (EMG) activity that is similar to when we are awake @both 1 and 2 are correct 1, 2 and 3 are correct 2%,. Ifa test has high reliability_ r ,., FA 5 A g) _ ‘1» the test measures what the authors of the test claim it measures VOL i é "’ 5 VIP? 93 km 5 r5 ® people who do well on the test one day are likely to do well again another day Ssscores on the test correlate positively with performance in some other situation kthe validity must also be high Rhone are correct I 39. According to the textbook, the content of dreams is influenced by _. 1. experiences of the past day 2. stimuli being experienced during sleep 3. spontaneous brain activity 4. Both 1 and 2 are correct @1, 2 and 3 are correct 40. Circadian rhythms are those that _. ‘kinduce anterograde amnesia kinduce retrograde amnesia @ last about a day “Rare influenced by the phases of the moon 5. none are correct 41. For most college-aged people REM sleep occurs __ \1K randomly at any time during sleep “kaostly just after the person has fallen asleep ‘Sc mostly at the middle of the night’s sleep mostly toward the end ofthe night’s sleep 42. According to the research by Herrnstein and Murray (The Bell Curve in the mid-19905) discussed in lecture, _. 1. there is some degree of heritability of intelligence (g) ‘ 2. our society may be creating two classes—"a cognitive elite” and "everyone else” \ZK people who consider themselves politically conservative have higher IQ values than people who consider themselves liberal @both 1 and 2 are correct 1, 2 and 3 are correct 43. According to lecture and the video viewed in class, which is the best example of parasomnia? \As long as Jane can say a telephone number in her head, she can remember it. But, once she stops saying it, the number is lost permanently “2\Jasmine canylfifl remember events that occurred when she was a young girl, but cannot remember events that occ-Grred since she hurt her head in a car accident \3\Jarnal can write a brilliant novel, but he gets lost each night when walking home from his office 9 While in slow-wave sleep, Joe leaves his bedroom and walks to his television room. ’ . none are an example of parasomnia 44. According to the textbook, memories recalled under hypnosis are more accurate than ordinary memories. 1. True @False 45. Wason selection tasks (like the one completed online) require participants to read a list ofdigits, complete a difficult task (e.g., saying the alphabet backwards), and then recall the digit list. 1.True @False Fumes d, abngflC‘g‘) 46. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the part of the brain that is responsible for the circadian rhythm. True 2. False _ benerai Psycnmogy/ l—ail AU.L.L/ txam HA] r‘HlK I‘UHII/ rage I r’hj wag; In a memory span experiment (like the one completed online), memory span refers to the longest list of items that you can hold in memory and repeat back correctly. @True 2. False 48. Negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood of a response. 1. True @False anIE’ZfQ 49. According to the research presented in lecture there is better recall following maintenance rehearsal than with elaborative rehearsal. 1. True @ False 50. According to the serial position curve, there's better recall for items at the start of and at the end of a list of items to e remembered (than for items in the middle) True 2. False 51. Joe can remember events leg, who was the valedictorian of ...
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