Discussion Questions - EXAM1:11PM Chapter1:page125 1.,...

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EXAM 1 9/23/14 1:11 PM Chapter 1: page 1-25 1. By the end of the eighteenth century, what were the two major political entities in  the Middle East? Ottoman Empire and Safavid/Qajar Persia 2. Which major cities (regions) became part of the Islamic empire in 635 CE, 638  CE, and 641 CE respectively? Damascus, then Jerusalem, and Egypt 3. Explain the dhimmi system. Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians were “people of the book” and paid taxes  in return for military protection and continuing to practice their own faiths 4. What were some reasons for the success of the Ottoman Empire? Ability to insert itself into power dynamics and achieve security and stability,  built a large standing army, innovative uses of firearms 5. Why did the religious establishment become more powerful in Shiite Persia than  in the Ottoman Empire? Shah made Islam the centerpiece of his empire Religious establishments were independent 6. Explain the millet system. Was religious group officially recognized by Ottoman authorities and could  use their own language, establish social institutions, collect taxes, and  operate religious courts 7. What were the Capitulations and what effect did these have on the Ottoman  Empire? They offered favorable conditions to European merchants doing business in  Ottoman lands;  legal immunity  mean foreign merchants paid no taxes,  Europeans flooded local markets with finished goods, and devastated  Ottoman class. 8. What are some examples of losses of territory suffered by the Ottoman Empire in  the 18 th  and 19th centuries? French invaded Egypt in 1798, Balkans became restive with rise of Greek and Serbian, Serbs achieved de facto independence in 1817 and Greeks gained  independence with British help in 1830, French conquered and annexed  Algeria in 1830 9. Who was Muhammad Ali (Mehmet Ali) and what impact did he have on Egyptian  history? Went to Egypt to battle French, but established himself as de facto ruler;  established dynasty that lasted until 1952; built military, brought cotton to  Egypt, established modern schools, sent students abroad, and brought in  foreign advisers and experts to train military
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10. What changes to the Ottoman Empire were encompassed by the Tanzimat  reforms? What were some of the ramifications of these changes? Improved security, concentrated power in central government, stable  economic base; eventually Ottoman Empire went bankrupt, but the  communication and transportation infrastructure were upgraded 11. What changes came in the last years of the Qajar dynasty?
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