Judaism - Judaism (14million 6millioninUS(2%ofpopulation)...

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A SocioHistory of Hebrew and Jewish Religion Judaism 12 th  largest religion in the world ( 14 million) 6 million in US (2% of population) – Almost half of all world wide Jews If… o Hinduism…has a biological flavor o Buddhism… has a psychological flavor o The Judaism… has a historical or legal flavor Founding Narrative: Hebrew Religion Abraham- Agreed to make a Covenant with a God for his decedents Moses- Prophet leading the Hebrews from slavery in Egypt to new home in Palestine Tabernacle- Moveable Shrine housing Mosaic Scriptures (includes ark of the covenant (earliest known Hebrew writing 10 th   BCE) Early Period 20 th -13 th  C. BCE- Palestine rules by Egyptian Pharaohs, inhabitated by pastoral  polytheists  12 th -10 th  – Struggle between Hebrews and Canaanite ‘nations’ o Shared common language, deities Kings emerge from political unifications of 12 tribes in the 10 th  century. Priests from landless 13 th Ancient Authorities Kings- Political leaders who seek to maintain law and order. Took over from 12  tribal chieftains around 1000 BCE. Tended to collect Hebrew narrative together. Priests- From a 13 th  tribe. Charged with preserving ritual practices of the  Tabernacle, the Temple. Several books of their practices are part of the Torah.  Their rituals of animal sacrifice celebrate and reinforce the central force of  Covenant. Prophets- people who receive ecstatic experiences of the Devine. Manu times  criticized Kings and Priests for their roles and abuses of power. Babylonian Exile 
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Sociopolitical elites taken away Temple destroyed Rise of congregational worship o Synagoges Afterwards o Dual worship system o Second temple o Messianism “messiah”- anointed one During Greco- Roman rule This evolves into a more complex system with the conquering of Palestine by the  Greeks and the Romans. The second temple is destroyed in 70 CE or so, and has not yet  been rebuilt Essenes- Jewish apocalyptical monastics in rural areas. Breakaway sect o Dead Sea Trolls Sadduces- upper class political establishment associated with Temple llife Pharisees- middle class popular sect associated with synagogue life. Gives rise to  the Rabbis Class.
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