Anth1023-Week6 - DrillEconomies Production Foraging...

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Drill- Economies 2/17/14 There is  ALWAYS  a reason behind gift giving Production Foraging Horticulture Agriculture Pastoralism Capitalism: make more than you need to sell for a profit Production, Exchange, Consumption Progress
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Cultural Anth. “Economics and Reciprocity“ 2/17/14 Learning Objectives: Describe common subsistence types Give examples of the 3 types of reciprocity Adaptive Strategies Economy  = a population’s system of production, distribution, and consumption A bit broader than other disciplines… Adaptive Strategies  = the various ways people make a living 5 Adaptive Strategies Foraging Horticulture Agriculture Pastoralism  Capitalism Some History Prior to 10,000 years ago, we were all foragers People would make use of whatever resources available locally  Domestication of plants and animals in “fertile crescent” changed our trajectory Fertile Crescent ” area of land where we first domesticated wheat Goats  were first animals domesticated Corn  was first in Central America Foraging (1)
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Cultural Anth. “Economics and Reciprocity“ 2/17/14 <100 people in a group Marginal landscapes - places where wealthy didn’t want to settle (mountains, forests,  deserts) Contemporary foragers may incorporate modern technology (firearms or snowmobiles) Ex . !Kung Bushman from the Kalahari desert- people who continue to follow the  foraging lifestyle Richard Lee studied them Horticulture (2) Very small scale Simple tools Slash & burn Fallow periods - when you leave land to let it rest (rest period)  Inexpensive housing structures Variety of crops  People that are just growing food for their own family Ex . Guarani Indians living in tropical forests of Paraguay Agriculture (3) Larger, sedentary society More labor intensive Some domesticated beasts Changes the landscape Terracing (like a stair step) Irrigation
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Cultural Anth. “Economics and Reciprocity“ 2/17/14 More focus on fewer crops People producing excess, not just for own family See rise of markets & labor specialization Pastoralism (4) Herd domestic animals Symbiosis with herds- animals depend on humans, humans depend on animals (milk,  meat, blood) 2 mobility patterns Nomadism  = constantly on the move, society goes with Mobile Few belongings Transhumance  = settled village  (women, children, elderly) Men go around with animals Ex . Massai of east Africa Capitalism (5) Capitalists use their resources to maximize wealth Workers sell their labor on the market Goals: Owners : get your labor as cheaply as possible Workers : try to get as much $$ for your labor as possible (labor unions) 3 Types of Exchange Market Principle
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Cultural Anth. “Economics and Reciprocity“ 2/17/14
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