Bioethics Study Guide Exam 2 - 1 Bioethics Study Guide Exam...

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2/23/15 1 Bioethics Study Guide Exam 2 Animal Pain Rene Descartes: humans have a soul ( res cogitans ) The stuff of thought and rationality Animals do not, they are merely physical objects He believed animals could not feel pain despite pain like behavior Cs Lewis Lewis thought animals felt pain but in a different way from humans (David Hume thought similarly) A person has consciousness, an animal only sentience A person is aware of a unified sequence of painful experiences as their own Animals only have “one off” pain experiences that are not united into a single consciousness Modern Philosophy of Mind and Ethics Today I think it is fairly widely accepted that animals can feel pain. Philosopher Peter Singer The idea of speciesism- the same arguments which support equal rights for humans supports animal rights Not all humans are as smart, strong, or even have the same capacity to feel pain as others… but we believe in equality among humans Singer points out that pigs are smarter than horses, dogs, and cats…yet we generally are revolted by eating the latter, not the former The sort of prejudice we show toward some animals is as arbitrary and unjustified a prejudice as racism or sexism Singer’s Utilitarianism To say that pains and pleasures are the basis of morality and then to assume that includes only human pains and pleasures begs the question. Tom Regan Is research on animals ever justified? Regan thinks that humans have rights because we have a life Animals have inherent value because they have a life… Regan thinks that if a man and a dog are in a lifeboat it would be wrong of the man to kill the dog to stay alive Pediatric researcher Carolyn Compton, “I love animals, but there’s no question in my mind that if I were able to sacrifice an animal life to save a human being, I would do it.” Carl Cohen sees speciesism as justified… there are morally relevant distinctions to be made… If we were species neutral in our views we would be as likely to save a dog as a baby from a burning house Why We Need Animals in Research? 1. The FDA requires testing on animals (not an ethical justification) 2. Animals do resemble us genomically and with respect to certain physiological systems and cell morphology 3. Animals (such as mice) have been of benefit in cancer testing 4. Animal testing is part of a variety of different research techniques (e.g. Computer modeling and cellular biological studies) that help to answer the same question in a more reliable way
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10 2/23/15 Critiquing The Official View of Animal Research 1. It is inherently wrong 2. Animal research produces bad science From 1976 to 1985, 209 new drugs were tested extensively on animals and approved for use in the U.S.
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