Bioethics Study Guide Exam 1 - Bioethics Study Guide Exam 1...

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Bioethics Study Guide Exam 1 Immanuel Kant (1724- 1804) Every moral duty must be capable of being a universalizable Maxim, which you could will that everyone else acted on in the same way as you. You may never treat humans as a “mere means” only! They must always be treated as an ends in themselves. Utilitarianism: developed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill in late 18 th century London. It holds that right acts produce the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of beings, which is called “utility.” Teachings: Consequentialism : Consequences count…. not motives/intentions Maximization : The number of beings affected by a consequence counts. The more beings affected the more important the result. A theory of value : A definition of what counts as good consequences. A scope of morality premise : Each being’s happiness is to count as one unit of happiness up to a certain boundary. Fallacies of Reasoning Slippery Slope Logical a to b to c to d to e (e is clearly unacceptable so a is not acceptable Abortion leads to baby murder Owning a rifle leads to owning an RPG Giving a child a gift now leads to him/her having a sense of entitlement their entire lives If you allow a 21 yr old to drink why not a 20 yr old, why not a 19 year old….why not my 4 year old nephew? (however we can draw lines even if somewhat artificially…we know there are rich and tall people…sick and well) Empirical Allowing one person to do it opens the door to a flood… Once one person speeds everyone else will follow….if one person is given an opportunity to seek euthanasia then there will be a flood of people…. But this doesn’t seem so...there are plenty of empirical counterexamples… we allow freedom of speech but that doesn’t mean everyone is shouting at the top of their lungs everyday about injustice Ad Hominem (to the man) X is a jerk so I don’t listen to what he says Y is making a case for abortion, but she says she would never have an abortion herself (ATTACK THE ARGUMENT NOT THE PERSON) Tu Quoque (you too) Literally “You Too”….You didn’t stop at the stop sign…well you ran a red light last week….(parents do as I say not as I do…they have a better argument than that…there are independent reasons you should avoid their mistakes) Straw Man/ Red Herring
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Straw man-attributing to your opponent an argument he/she would not make because it is so weak Ex: The reason party X wants to raise taxes is because they want to punish the rich. Red Herring is a distracting things that may look related to an argument but it is not: Person 1: A person should have a right to terminate life-sustaining care if they so choose.
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  • Fall '09
  • Sullivan
  • Ethics , Kant, Karen Quinlan, incompetent patient, Involuntary Euthanasia- Death

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