Ch 34 - Figure 34.1 Ch 34 The origin and Evolution of...

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Figure 34.1
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Ch. 34 The origin and Evolution of Vertebrates Chapter Objectives : Chordate characteristics Craniates Vertebrates Ganthostomes Tetrapods Amniotes Mammals and Humans
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Figure 34.2 ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME Notochord Common ancestor of chordates Head Vertebral column Jaws, mineralized skeleton Lungs or lung derivatives Lobed fins Limbs with digits Amniotic egg Milk Echinodermata Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia Chordates Craniates Vertebrates Gnathostomes Osteichthyans Lobe-fins Tetrapods Amniotes
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Derived Characters of Chordates Four key characters of chordates : Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits or clefts Muscular, post-anal tail
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Figure 34.3 Muscle segments Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Muscular, post-anal tail Pharyngeal slits or clefts Anus Mouth
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Figure 34.UN01 Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia
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Figure 34.4 Mouth Cirri Pharyngeal slits Atrium Digestive tract Atriopore Segmental muscles Anus Notochord Tail Dorsal, hollow nerve cord 1 cm Lancelets (Cephalochordata) are named for their bladelike shape They are marine suspension feeders that retain characteristics of the chordate body plan as adults
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Figure 34.UN02 Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia
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Figure 34.5 Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Tail Muscle segments Intestine Stomach Atrium Pharynx with slits (a) Tunicate larva (b) Adult tunicate (c) Adult tunicate Excurrent siphon Incurrent siphon Water flow Excurrent siphon Anus Intestine Esophagus Stomach Incurrent siphon to mouth Excurrent siphon Atrium Tunic Pharynx with numerous slits
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Figure 34.2 ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME Notochord Common ancestor of chordates Head Vertebral column Jaws, mineralized skeleton Lungs or lung derivatives Lobed fins Limbs with digits Amniotic egg Milk Echinodermata Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia Chordates Craniates Vertebrates Gnathostomes Osteichthyans Lobe-fins Tetrapods Amniotes
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Figure 34.UN03 Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia
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Craniates are chordates that have a head Segmented muscles Pharyngeal slits No skull ! Haikouella
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Derived characters of Craniates
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Dorsal edges of neural plate Neural crest Neural tube Notochord Migrating neural crest cells (a) (b) (c) Skull bones and cartilage derived from neural crest cells Figure 34.7
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In aquatic craniates the pharyngeal clefts evolved into gill slits Craniates have a higher metabolism and are more muscular than tunicates and lancelets Craniates have a heart with at least two chambers , red blood cells with hemoglobin , and kidneys
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Figure 34.UN03 Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia
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Figure 34.9
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