Ch 48 49 - Ch 48 49 Neurons Synapses and Signalling Nervous...

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Ch. 48 & 49 Neurons, Synapses and Signalling, Nervous System Chapter Objectives : Neuronal Organization Action Potential Synapse Organization of vertebrate Nervous System
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Figure 48.3 Sensor Effector Sensory input Motor output Integration Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS)
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Figure 49.2 Nerve net (a) Hydra (cnidarian) Radial nerve Nerve ring (b) Sea star (echinoderm) Eyespot Brain Nerve cords Transverse nerve Brain Ventral nerve cord Segmental ganglia (c) Planarian (flatworm) (d) Leech (annelid) (h) Salamander (vertebrate) (e) Insect (arthropod) (f) Chiton (mollusc) (g) Squid (mollusc) Brain Brain Brain Ventral nerve cord Segmental ganglia Anterior nerve ring Longitudinal nerve cords Ganglia Ganglia Spinal cord (dorsal nerve cord) Sensory ganglia
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Nervous System A central nervous system (CNS) where integration takes place; this includes the brain and a nerve cord (invertebrates) or spinal cord in vertebrates A peripheral nervous system (PNS) , which carries information into and out of the CNS The neurons of the PNS, when bundled together, form nerves. PNS consists of nerves and ganglia.
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Figure 49.4 Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves
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Figure 49.5 Gray matter White matter Ventricles
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The brain and spinal cord contain Gray matter , which consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons White matter , which consists of bundles of myelinated axons
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Invertebrates usually have a ventral nerve cord while vertebrates have a dorsal spinal cord The spinal cord and brain develop from the embryonic nerve cord The nerve cord gives rise to the central canal and ventricles of the brain
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The central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain are hollow and filled with cerebrospinal fluid The cerebrospinal fluid is filtered from blood and functions to cushion the brain and spinal cord as well as to provide nutrients and remove wastes
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Neuron organization and structure reflect function
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