Ch 46 - Ch 46 Animal Reproduction Chapter Objectives Sexual...

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Ch. 46 Animal Reproduction Chapter Objectives : Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Reproductive Organs Gametogenesis Hormonal Control of the Female Reproductive Cycles
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Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom Sexual reproduction is the creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete ( sperm ) and female gamete ( egg ) to form a zygote Asexual reproduction is creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm
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Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction
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Fission Budding Fragmentation – Regeneration Parthenogenesis
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Fission
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Reproductive Cycle
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Figure 46.4
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Hermaphroditism Sex Reversal Variation in Patterns of Sexual Reproduction
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Fertilization depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species External Fertilization Internal Fertilization
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Figure 46.6
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Figure 46.7
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Gamete Production and Delivery Gonads Specialized sperm storing organs : Spermatheca Cloaca Monogamy
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Figure 46.8 (a) Male fruit fly (b) Female fruit fly Accessory gland Ejaculatory duct Penis and claspers Testis Vas deferens Seminal vesicle Ovary Accessory gland Oviduct Spermatheca Uterus Vulva
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Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes The female external reproductive structures include the clitoris and two sets of labia The internal organs are a pair of gonads and a system of ducts and chambers that carry gametes and house the embryo and fetus
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Figure 46.10 (Rectum) Cervix Vagina Major vestibular (Bartholin’s) gland Vaginal opening Oviduct Ovary Uterus (Urinary bladder) (Pubic bone) Urethra Body Glans Prepuce Clitoris Labia minora Labia majora Ovaries Oviduct Follicles Corpus luteum Uterine wall Endometrium Vagina Uterus Cervix
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Figure 46.10b Ovaries Oviduct Follicles Corpus luteum Uterine wall Endometrium Vagina Uterus Cervix
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2 n 2 n n n n n Ovary Primordial germ cell Mitotic divisions Mitotic divisions Oogonium In embryo Primary oocyte (present at birth), arrested in prophase of meiosis I Completion of meiosis I and onset of meiosis II Secondary oocyte, arrested at metaphase of meiosis II First polar body Ovulation, sperm entry Completion of meiosis II Second polar body Primary oocyte within follicle Growing follicle Mature follicle Ruptured follicle Ovulated secondary oocyte Corpus luteum Degenerating corpus luteum Fertilized egg Figure 46.12b
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