Ch 43 - Ch 43 Immune System Chapter Objectives Innate...

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Ch. 43 Immune System Chapter Objectives : Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity Adaptive Immunity defends against infection of body fluids and body cells Disruption of Immune System – In brief
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The 2 Arms/Divisions of the Immune System
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Pathogens (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) INNATE IMMUNITY (all animals) • Rapid response Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors • Slower response Barrier defenses: Skin Mucous membranes Secretions Internal defenses: Phagocytic cells Natural killer cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response Humoral response: Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids. Cell-mediated response: Cytotoxic cells defend against infection in body cells. ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY (vertebrates only) Figure 43.2
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In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens
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Innate Immunity of Invertebrates Chitin Lysozyme Hemocytes – Phagocytosis ; Toll Receptor Antimicrobial peptides
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Figure 43.3 Pathogen PHAGOCYTIC CELL Vacuole Lysosome containing enzymes
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Innate Immunity of Vertebrates
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Pathogens (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) INNATE IMMUNITY (all animals) • Rapid response Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors • Slower response Barrier defenses: Skin Mucous membranes Secretions Internal defenses: Phagocytic cells Natural killer cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response Humoral response: Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids. Cell-mediated response: Cytotoxic cells defend against infection in body cells. ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY (vertebrates only) Figure 43.2
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Barrier Defenses Mucous membranes - respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts Body fluids - saliva, mucus, and tears pH of skin & the digestive system
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Internal Defenses Phagocytic cells- Neutrophils, Macrophages, Dendritic cells and Eosinophils Natural killer cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response
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Figure 43.1 Macrophage
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Figure 43.6 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID PHAGOCYTIC CELL VESICLE Lipopolysaccharide Helper protein TLR4 Flagellin TLR5 CpG DNA ds RNA TLR9 TLR3 Innate immune responses
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Separated blood elements Basophils Neutrophils Monocytes Lymphocytes Eosinophils Platelets Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 5–6 million 250,000–400,000 Blood clotting Transport of O 2 and some CO 2 Defense and immunity Functions Number per P L (mm 3 ) of blood Cell type Cellular elements 45% Leukocytes (white blood cells) 5,000–10,000 Figure 42.17b
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Stem cells (in bone marrow) Myeloid stem cells Lymphoid stem cells B cells T cells Lymphocytes Erythrocytes Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils Platelets Monocytes Figure 42.19
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