Ch 42 - Figure 42.1 Ch 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange...

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Figure 42.1
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Ch. 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter Objectives : Circulatory systems Double circulation in animals Patterns of Blood flow Blood components Gas exchange in animals Respiratory pigments
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Evolutionary Variation in Circulatory Systems
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Figure 42.2 Circular canal Mouth Radial canals 5 cm (a) The moon jelly Aurelia , a cnidarian (b) The planarian Dugesia , a flatworm Gastrovascular cavity Mouth Pharynx 2 mm Gastrovascular Cavities
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What about animals which are many cells thick ? Circulatory system
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General Properties of Circulatory Systems A circulatory system has : A circulatory fluid A set of interconnecting vessels A muscular pump, the heart
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Figure 42.3 (a) An open circulatory system Heart Hemolymph in sinuses surrounding organs Pores Tubular heart Dorsal vessel (main heart) Auxiliary hearts Small branch vessels in each organ Ventral vessels Blood Interstitial fluid Heart (b) A closed circulatory system
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Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Cardiovascular system Heart : May have one or more chambers Main type of blood vessels : arteries , veins and capillaries
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Single and double circulation in vertebrates.
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Figure 42.4a (a) Single circulation Artery Heart: Atrium (A) Ventricle (V) Vein Gill capillaries Body capillaries Key Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen-poor blood
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Figure 42.4b (b) Double circulation Systemic circuit Systemic capillaries Right Left A A V V Lung capillaries Pulmonary circuit Key Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen-poor blood
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Adaptations of Double Circulatory Systems
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Amphibians : 3-chambered heart Pulmocutaneous circuit Lung and skin capillaries Atrium (A) Atrium (A) Left Right Ventricle (V) Systemic capillaries Systemic circuit Key Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen-poor blood Figure 42.5a
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Figure 42.5b Reptiles (Except Birds) Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit Systemic capillaries Incomplete septum Left systemic aorta Left Right Right systemic aorta A V Lung capillaries Atrium (A) Ventricle (V) Key Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen-poor blood
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Systemic circuit Lung capillaries Pulmonary circuit A V Left Right Systemic capillaries Mammals and Birds Atrium (A) Ventricle (V) Key Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen-poor blood Figure 42.5c
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Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals
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Figure 42.7 Right Pulmonary artery Right atrium Semilunar valve Atrioventricular Valve : Tricuspid Valve Right ventricle Left ventricle Atrioventricular Valve : Bicuspid Valve Semilunar valve Left atrium Left Pulmonary Artery Aorta Inferior Vena cava Superior Vena cava Left Pulmonary Veins Right Pulmonary Veins
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Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Pulmonary vein Aorta Inferior vena cava Right ventricle Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs Right atrium Aorta Left ventricle Left atrium Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Capillaries of left lung Capillaries of head and forelimbs Figure 42.6
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