BY124 Plants Mock Exam 1 - BY 124 Practice Exam 35 36...

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Unformatted text preview: BY 124 Practice Exam Chapters 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, & 39 1. Alternation of generations ____________. a. is distinguished by a unicellular haploid stage and a multicellular diploid generation b. consists of a diploid gametophyte stage alternating with a haploid sporophyte stage c. is distinguished by haploid and diploid stages that are both multicellular d. is distinguished by a multicellular haploid generation and a unicellular diploid generation e. is unique to plants 2. Which of the following are adaptations for terrestrial life seen in all plants? a. Chlorophylls a and b b. Cell walls of cellulose and lignin c. Sporopollenin and an embryo protected and nourished by a gametophyte d. vascular tissue e. cuticle and stoma 3. Xylem and phloem are found in… a. all plants b. bryophytes, ferns, conifers, and angiosperms c. only the gametophytes of vascular plants d. the vascular plants, which include lycophytes, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants e. only vascular plants with seeds 4. Bryophytes differ from other plant groups because a. The gametophyte generation is dominant b. They lack gametangia c. They have flagellated sperm d. They are not embryophytes e. All of the above are true 5. Megaphylls a. are large leaves b. are gametophytes that develop from megaspores c. are leaves specialized for reproduction d. are leaves with branching vascular systems e. were a dominant gropu of the great coal forests. 6. You are out walking in the woods and stumble upon a plant. Through observation you learn that it releases spores, has vascular tissue, and has independent gametophytes. Based on this information you can surmise that this plant is: a. a conifer b. a bryophyte c. a fern d. an angiosperm e. a fungus 7. True or False: The gametophyte generation is most reduced in gymnosperms a. True b. False 8. In which of the following groups is water not required for sperm to reach the female gametophyte? a. Bryophytes b. Ferns c. Most gymnosperms d. Angiosperms e. Both c and d 9. For a pine seed, which of the following choices states the number of generations present and correctly describes those generations? a. One: the new sporophyte generation b. Two: Seed coat and food supply from female gametophyte and the sporophyte embryo c. Two: seed coat from integument of the parent sporophyte and the new sporophyte embryo d. Three: seed coat from the parent sporophyte, food supply from the gametophyte, and the sporophyte embryo e. Three: seed coat from the female gametophyte, food supply from the parent sporophyte, and the sporophyte embryo. 10. Which of the following correctly describes the path a pollen tube takes to reach the female gametophyte in an angiosperm? a. stigma, style, ovary, ovule, embryo sac b. anther, stigma, filament, ovule, ovum c. stigma, filament, carpel, ovary, ovule d. anther, stigma, ovary, ovule, embryo sac e. stigma, style, sepal, ovule, ovary 11. In a pine tree, where would you find the microsporangium? a. within the embryo sac in an ovule b. in the pollen sacs in an anther c. on a scale in a pollen cone d. on a scale on an ovulate cone e. forming a seed coat surrounding a pine seed 12. Which of the following describes a likely advantage of double fertilization? a. two embryos are produced in a seed, thus increasing the reproductive output of a plant. b. Two embryos are produced in a seed, allowing selection for the stronger one to reproduce the plant. c. There does not appear to be an adaptive advantage to this trait. It is likely a remnant of ancestral angiosperms d. The endosperm does not form unless fertilization of the egg occurs, so plants do not waste nutrients on infertile ovules. e. The triploid endosperm resulting from the fusion of two sperm with the central cell has a higher nutrient content than the haploid food supply surrounding gymnosperm embryos. 13. Which of the following is incorrect? Monocots typically have a. a taproot rather than a fibrous root system b. leaves with parallel veins rather than branching veins c. no secondary growth d. scattered vascular bundles in the stem rather than bundles in a ring e. pith in the center of the vascular cylinder in the root 14. Sieve-­‐tube elements a. are responsible for lateral transport through a woody stem b. control the activities of phloem cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes c. have spiral thickenings that allow the cell to elongate along with a young shoot d. are transport cells with sieve plates in the end walls between cells e. transport photosynthate from leaves through companion cells 15. Which of the following plant structures show determinate growth? a. roots b. vegetative shoots c. adventitious roots d. leaves e. No parts of a plant show determinate growth 16. Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its function? a. perpendicularly oriented initials—form radial vascular rays (learn) b. lenticels—facilitate gas exchange in woody stems c. root hairs—absorb water and dissolved minerals d. root cap—protects the root as it pushes through soil e. periderm—forms protective layer of cork 17. Why does pinching off the top of a plant make it bushier? a. Removal of a node stimulates the internodes to grow and make the plant bushier b. Removing the apical meristem stimulates growth in the lateral meristem, thus making the plant bushier. c. Removing the apical meristem stimulates growth in the axillary buds, thus making the plant bushier. d. Removing plant stems always leads to the plant producing more leaves. e. Removing the apical meristem causes the plant to change from its vegetative phase to its reproductive phase. The reproductive phase is bushier. 18. Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in specialized __________ cells called the ____________. a. parenchyma … mesophyll b. sclerenchyma … palisades c. dermal … mesophyll d. vascular … collenchyma e. parenchyma … pith 19. A cross section of a plant part exposes epidermis, a thick cortex, and a central cylinder of xylem and phloem. This part is a ________. a. Bud b. Leaf c. Meristem d. Stem e. Root 20. Guard Cells a. are necessary for water absorption from the environment b. are necessary for gas exchange during photosynthesis c. protect the plant’s roots from infection d. control water and solute intake by roots e. the first and second responses are correct 21. Which of the following is the correct arrangement of structures from the inside to the outside of a leaf blade? a. epidermis, mesophyll, vascular bundle b. mesophyll, vascular bundle, epidermis c. palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, lower epidermis, upper epidermis, vascular bundle d. vascular bundle, lower epidermis, upper epidermis, spongy mesophyll, palisade mesophyll e. vascular bundle, mesophyll, epidermis 22. If you pound a nail into a tree 1 meter off the ground and come back to find it in 20 years, it will be ____________. a. more than one meter off the ground and the same depth in the tree b. 1 meter off the ground and in the same depth in the tree c. more than one meter off the ground and more deeply embedded in the tree d. One meter off the ground and more deeply embedded in the tree. e. None of the above 23. In what order would you pass through tissues when moving from the pith to the epidermis in a plant possessing secondary vascular tissue? a. primary phloem, secondary phloem, secondary xylem, primary xylem b. primary xylem, secondary xylem, vascular cambium, secondary phloem, primary phloem c. primary phloem, primary xylem, secondary phloem, secondary xylem d. secondary phloem, primary phloem, primary xylem, secondary xylem e. secondary xylem, primary xylem, vascular cambium, primary phloem, secondary phloem 24. Proton pumps in the plasma membrane of plant cells may… a. generate a membrane potential that helps drive cations into the cell through specific channels b. be coupled to the movement of K+ into guard cells c. drive the accumulation of sucrose in sieve tube elements d. contribute to the movement of ions through a cotransport mechanism e. all of the above 25. If a turgid plant cell placed in a solution in an open beaker becomes flaccid, which of the following statements is true? a. the water potential of the cells was initially higher than that of the solution b. the water potential of the cell was initially equal to that of the solution c. the pressure (Ψp) of the cell was initially lower than that of the solution d. The Ψs of the cell was initially more negative than the solution e. Turgor pressure disappeared because the cell no longer needed support 26. The casparian strip prevents water and minerals from entering the vascular cylinder through the a. Plasmodesmata b. Endodermal cells c. Symplast d. Apoplast e. Xylem vessels 27. Which of the following mechanisms explains the movement of sucrose from source to sink? a. evaporation of water and active transport of sucrose from the sink b. osmotic movement of water into the sucrose-­‐loaded sieve-­‐tube elements, creating a higher pressure in the source than in the sink c. tension created by pressure differences in the source and the sink d. active transport of sucrose through the sieve-­‐tube cells driven by proton pumps e. the hydrolysis of starch to sucrose in mesophyll cells, which raises their water potential and drives the bulk flow of sap to the sink. 28. How might roots react when they encounter a region of the soil that is low in nitrates? a. minimize branching b. produce additional root hairs to facilitate nitrate absorption c. branch extensively so as to maximize the ability to absorb whatever nitrates are available d. produce additional proteins for transporting and assimilating the available nitrates e. increase mycorrhizal associations so as to increase nitrate absorption 29. When sugar is transported in plants, ________. a. sugar always moves upward from roots to leaves b. leaves are always sugar sources and roots are always sugar sinks c. leaves may be sinks or sources, but roots are always sinks d. leaves are always sugar sinks and roots are always sugar sources e. None of the listed responses is correct 30. Which of the cells below are involved with bulk flow? a. Tracheids, vessels and sieve tubes b. Guard cells, vessels, and sieve tubes c. Tracheids, plasmodesmata, sieve tubes d. Tracheids, vessels, and guard cells e. Tracheids, vessels, and plasmodesmata 31. Negatively charged minerals a. are released form clay particles by cation exchange b. are reduced by cation exchange before they can be absorbed c. are converted into amino acids before they are transported through the plant d. are bound when roots release acids into the soil e. are leached away more easily than positively charged minerals 32. Epiphytes a. have Haustoria for anchoring to their host plants and obtaining water and nutrients b. are symbiotic relationships between specialized leaves and specific fungi c. live in poor soil and capture and digest insects to obtain nutrition d. grow on other plants but do not obtain nutrients from their hosts e. house nitrogen-­‐fixing bacteria within vesicles of their root cells 33. Which of the following is an example of phytoremediation? a. dusting legume seeds with specific Rhizobium strains to increase nodule formation b. inoculating seeds with fungal spores to ensure mycorrhizal formation c. using plants to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils d. genetic engineering of plants to increase protein content e. seeding the ocean with iron to create algal blooms that reduce atmospheric CO2 levels 34. Why do farmers need to be concerned with the pH levels in their soil? a. The pH level of soil affects water levels b. The pH level of soil affects cation exchange and influences the chemical form of minerals c. The pH level of soil affects anion exchange and influences the chemical form of minerals d. Plants may turn blue if the pH is too high e. None of the above 35. What supplies most of the energy for the microorganisms in the rhizosphere? a. earthworms b. mycorrhizae c. nitrogen-­‐fixing bacteria d. plants e. soil bacteria 36. The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia is _____. a. leghemoglobin b. hydrogenase c. rubisco d. rhizobium e. nitrogenase 37. Legumes (members of the pea family) have roots with swellings called nodules that _____. a. provide a steady supply of sugar to the host plant b. form fungal hyphae c. produce antibiotics that protect the plant from soil bacteria d. contain nitrogen-­‐fixing bacteria e. increase the surface area for water uptake 38. Which of the following is true of mycorrhizae? a. The fungal hyphae of ectomycorrhizae form arbuscules. b. Arbuscular mycorrhizae do not have a dense mantle ensheathing roots. c. Arbuscular mycorrhizae penetrate the cytoplasm of root cells. d. Ectomycorrhizae are found in many crop plants such as wheat and maize. e. None of the above 39. If a plant's leaves are yellowing, it may be that the plant is deficient in the elements needed to make chlorophyll, one of which is ________. a. magnesium b. copper c. phosphorus d. molybdenum e. sulfur 40. Which of the following would be considered a sustainable agricultural practice? a. flooding fields b. drip irrigation c. phytoremediation d. using large farming equipment in the fields e. b & c are correct ...
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