Ch 29 - Ch.29 Plant Diversity How Plants Colonized Land...

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Ch.29 Plant Diversity : How Plants Colonized Land Chapter Objectives : ¾ Land plants evolved from green algae ¾ Moses and other non-vascular plants : Their life cycles ¾ Ferns and other seedless plants were the first to grow tall
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Land Plants evolved from Green Algae: Charophyte
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1 µ m Figure 29.3 Chara species, a pond organism Coleochaete orbicularis, a disk-shaped charophyte that also lives in ponds (LM) 40 µ m 5 mm
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Land plants share four key traits with only charophytes : Rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes Peroxisome enzymes Structure of flagellated sperm Formation of a phragmoplast
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1 µ m Figure 29.2 30 nm
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Figure 6.19 Chloroplast Peroxisome Mitochondrion 1 µ m
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Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land
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Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land Zygotes had a layer of sporopollenin Plentiful CO 2 Lots of sunlight Soil rich in nutrients Few herbivores or pathogens Problems : Lack of structural support Scarcity of water
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1 µ m Figure 29.4 Red algae Chlorophytes Charophytes Embryophytes ANCESTRAL ALGA Viridiplantae Streptophyta Plantae
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Derived Traits of Plants
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¾ Alternation of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos ¾ Walled spores produced in sporangia ¾ Multicellular gametangia ¾ Apical meristems
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1 µ m Figure 29.5a Gamete from another plant Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Gametophyte ( n ) Mitosis Mitosis Spore Gamete MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Zygote Mitosis Sporophyte (2 n ) Alternation of generations 2 n n n n n
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1 µ m Figure 29.5b Embryo Maternal tissue Embryo (LM) and placental transfer cell (TEM) of Marchantia (a liverwort) Wall ingrowths Placental transfer cell (outlined in blue) 10 µ m 2 µ m
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¾ Alternation of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos ¾ Walled spores produced in sporangia ¾ Multicellular gametangia ¾ Apical meristems
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1 µ m Figure 29.5c Spores Sporangium Longitudinal section of Sphagnum sporangium (LM) Sporophyte Gametophyte Sporophytes and sporangia of Sphagnum (a moss)
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¾ Alternation of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos ¾ Walled spores produced in sporangia ¾ Multicellular gametangia ¾ Apical meristems
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1 µ m Figure 29.5da Female gametophyte Male gametophyte
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1 µ m Figure 29.5d Female gametophyte Male gametophyte Archegonia, each with an egg (yellow) Antheridia (brown), containing sperm Archegonia and antheridia of Marchantia (a liverwort)
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