Chapter 30 - Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II The Evolution of...

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Chapter 30 : Plant Diversity II : The Evolution of Seed Plants Chapter Objectives : ¾ Seeds and Pollen Grains are the key adaptations for life on land ¾ Gymnosperms ¾ Angiosperms ¾ Human Welfare depends greatly on seed plants
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1 µ m Table 29. 1
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Figure 30.1
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Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land In addition to seeds, the following are common to all seed plants Reduced gametophytes Heterospory Ovules Pollen
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Five Derived Traits of Seed Plants Reduced gametophytes Heterospory Ovules Pollen Seeds Microscopic male and female gametophytes ( n ) are nourished and protected by the sporophyte (2 n ) Microspore (gives rise to a male gametophyte) Megaspore (gives rise to a female gametophyte) Ovule (gymnosperm) Integument (2 n ) Megaspore ( n ) Megasporangium (2 n ) Pollen grains make water unnecessary for fertilization Seeds: survive better than unprotected spores, can be transported long distances Seed coat Food supply Embryo Female gametophyte Male gametophyte Figure 30.UN04
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Figure 30.2 PLANT GROUP Mosses and other nonvascular plants Gametophyte Sporophyte Sporophyte (2 n ) Gametophyte ( n ) Dominant Reduced, dependent on gametophyte for nutrition Dominant Reduced, independent (photosynthetic and free-living) Ferns and other seedless vascular plants Dominant Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) Angiosperm Gymnosperm Microscopic female gametophytes ( n ) inside these parts of flowers Microscopic female gametophytes ( n ) inside ovulate cone Microscopic male gametophytes ( n ) inside these parts of flowers Microscopic male gametophytes ( n ) inside pollen cone Sporophyte (2 n ) Sporophyte (2 n ) Sporophyte (2 n ) Gametophyte ( n ) Example
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Heterospory: The Rule Among Seed Plants
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1 µ m Figure 29.UN04 Homosporous spore production Heterosporous spore production Sporangium on sporophyll Single type of spore Typically a bisexual gametophyte Eggs Sperm Megasporangium on megasporophyll Megaspore Female gametophyte Male gametophyte Eggs Sperm Microspore Microsporangium on microsporophyll
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Development of Female Gametophyte within an ovule
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Ovules and Production of Eggs An ovule consists of a megasporangium, megaspore, and one or more protective integuments Gymnosperm megaspores have one integument Angiosperm megaspores usually have two integuments
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Figure 30.3-1
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