8-notes - 580.221 BME Molecules and Cells L08 Gene...

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580.221 BME Molecules and Cells L08 Gene regulation p 1 Lecture Eight – Gene Regulation Outline: cDNA Operons - Transcription DNA sequencing Mutations Mutations There are three types of mutations which may occur in DNA. Bases may be inserted, deleted, or substituted (replaced). These result in changes in which amino acids are represented by the triplet-codon system. Frameshift – caused by an insertion or deletion of a base. This causes a shift in the reading frame of ALL subsequent bases in that gene. Substitutions only affect the single amino acid represented by that codon: Missense – A codon for an amino acid is changed to one for a different amino acid Nonsense – A codon for an amino acid is changed to one for a STOP Silent – A codon for an amino acid is changed to another one for the same amino acid Non coding DNA DNA contains much that does not actually code for proteins. This can be split up into some categories: 1. Transcriptional regulatory domains : Promoters, Enhancer regions; these sites are important in transcription, for example in binding repressors, or polymerases. 2.
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8-notes - 580.221 BME Molecules and Cells L08 Gene...

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