Impressionism and Expressionism

Impressionism and Expressionism - Music of the 20th Century...

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Unformatted text preview: Music of the 20th Century Transition Period: 18901910 Waning Romanticism: Wagner's inspiration Traditional paths vs. New directions PostRomantic Germany: Richard Strauss Gustav Mahler Programmatic symphonic poems (Don Juan) Operas: Salome (1905), Elektra (1909), Der Rosenkavalier Traditional symphonist (9 complete) Uses Austrian folk melodies Large scale orchestra Song cycles: for soloist and orchestra, Das Leid von der Erde Musical Trends of the 20th century Rhythm: more complicated rhythms Melody: melodies are not composed with the human voice in mind Elaborate use of polyrhythm Composers favored odd number beat patterns such as 5, 7, 11, 13 Melodies have wide leaps and dissonances Harmony: "The emancipation of dissonance" Orchestration: composers will limit the orchestra and integrate more woodwinds and percussion Tonality with chromaticism or centric tonality Polytonality Atonality Serialism and 12tone music "Symbolism.... The secret of this movement is nothing other than this.... We were nourished on music, and our literary minds only dreamt of extracting from language virtually the same effects that music caused on our nervous system." --Paul Valry Impressionism New trend in art that focused on small brush strokes of color Visual artists include Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Auguste Renoir Inspired by the Symbolist poets like Stphane Mallarm and Paul Verlaine Subjects focus on light and shadows Less drama of emotion and more focus on the simple scenes Composed in free verse form Focus on symbols and metaphors rather than direct descriptions Impressionism in Music Exploration of new sounds Paris World Exposition in 1889 Gamelan ensembles African American songs and jazz styles Harmony Dissonances no longer need resolutions Focus on different intervals, octaves, fourths and fifths Chromatic scale, whole tone scale, parallel chords, ninth chords Orchestral color New uses of the woodwind instruments Less focus on the strings Rhythm Fluid movement will obscure the sense of downbeats Form Preference for small forms like preludes, nocturnes, arabesque, tone poems Claude Debussy (1862-1918) Won the Prix de Rome at age 22 Inspired by the Impressionist movement Broke all traditional composition rules at the conservatory Composed an opera, chamber music, piano music, and orchestral music Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun" Inspired by a poem by Stphane Mallarm Form ABA' Free flowing rhythm Orchestral colors "I am more and more convinced that music is not, in essence, a thing which can be cast into a traditional and fixed form. It is made up of color and rhythms." Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) Contemporary to Claude Debussy Also an Impressionist composer More classical in his approach to form Jazz influences from the World Fair Piano Concerto in G major Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) Born near St. Petersburg into a musical family Studied piano at an early age and shared his compositions with Nicolai Rimsky Korsakov His music attracted Serge Diaghilev Stravinsky leaves Paris during WWI Settled in LA after WWII and became a US citizen Commissioned to compose The Firebird (1910) and Petrushka (1911) Rite of Spring (1913) Stravinsky's Music Changing trends Revitalization of rhythm Orchestrator Nationalism Neoclassical period postImpressionism Classicism serialism, etc. Twelvetone music Oedipus Rex Symphony of Psalms The Rake's Progress (Hogarth) Threni: Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremiah Stravinsky's Music Rite of Spring Part I: Adoration of the Earth Part II: The Sacrifice Complex rhythms that sound primitive and barbaric Melodies: a Russian folk tune Orchestration: expanding the orchestras range and using percussive techniques Harmonies: diatonic harmonies with extensive dissonances, even polytonality occasionally Rhythm: Complex meters; additive meters Tells the story of a sacrifice of a young girl who dances herself to death Expressionism Art movement in Germany, 19051920 Reaction against French Impressionism Seeking expression of the inner psyche rather than external reality Wassily Kadinsky, Paul Klee, Edward Munch Literary contemporary: Franz Kafka Inspired the Second Viennese School; Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg Arnold Schoenberg (18741951) Born in Vienna, Austria Studied violin and composition Largely selftaught Became a teacher and had two famous students: Anton Webern and Alan Berg Emigrated to the US and taught at USC Three periods of composition: Early: Traditional Tonality Middle: Atonal Transfigured Night, 1899 Pierrot Lunaire, 1912 Late: 12 tone technique Variations for Orchestra, 1926 Song cycle based on 21 poems Based on text by Albert Giraud Main character is a clown Composed for 1 female singer, 5 instrumentalists: piano, flute/piccolo, clarinet/bass clarinet, violin/viola, and cello Sprechstimme: vocal technique where the melody is spoken rather than sung in exact rhythm or pitch Klangfarbenmelodie: a style of composition that the divides individual notes of a melody between different instruments Harmony: Atonal Rhythm: varying according to gestures Pierrot Lunaire No. 18, "The Moonfleck" Voice and five instruments Contrapuntal and dissonant Atonality expresses frustration Sprechstimme notation Schoenberg's 12 tone technique Used all possible pitches Created equality of every pitch Completely abandoned the traditional hierarchy of tonality Used tone rows in transposition, retrograde, inversion, and retrograde inversion Schoenberg's Students Anton Webern and Alan Berg Webern: carried on Schoenberg's ideas of Klangfarbenmelodie and experimented with 12 tone technique Alan Berg: composed mainly atonal music which includes the opera, Wozzeck ...
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