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Unformatted text preview: Mobility x You are teaching 5th grade at a school in Virginia Beach. You have 25 kids in your class. In October you get a new student from Kansas. She had a different curriculum there and you realize she hasn't studied any of the same science or social studies material as your students. Nevertheless, she will have to take the SOL test in May. In November you get another new student, this time from Texas. In January you get two more, in March another one. Over the course of the year three of your students have left. Including two of your brightest students. As a 5th grade teacher you are responsible for your students' SOL scores. x What will you do? Luckily for you, VDOE passed a resolution.
x x x Students who transfer into a Virginia school from another Virginia school division or another state at grades 3, 5, 8 shall be expected to take the SOL tests; however, the scores on those tests will not be used in calculating school accountability (accreditation) ratings in the year the transfer occurs if the transfer takes place after the 20th instructional day following the opening of school. BUT... All students who transfer within a school division shall have their scores counted in the calculation of the school's accountability (accreditation) rating. AND... all students who transfer into Virginia schools are expected to take and pass SOL tests at grades 3, 5, 8 and in high school unless they have been exempted by reason of disability or limited English proficiency as provided therein. 1 of 10 Mobility as a Barrier to Effective Education Barriers to Effective Education
x Equity x Accountability x Mobility x Obsolescence Definitions (not tested)
x x x x Student mobility refers to changes in school enrollment at times other than those prompted by school or program design. Although many are related to residential moves, up to 40% are initiated by the school or related to issues and problems arising at the school (Kerbow, 1996). Urban schools serving children whose families live in poverty often display high mobility rates. Stability refers to students whose enrollment is continuous. Research on the Effects of Mobility (Rhodes, 2006) not tested
x x Findings of a recent study (Rhodes, 2005) included mobility as the most critical factor predictive of performance levels on the NCLB/Ohio Department of Education performance indicators. Secondary factors were ethnicity and socioeconomic status. A number of other previous studies have linked school mobility and various achievement measures (Azcoitia et al., 2003; Downey & Pribesh, 1999; Kerbow, 1996; Rumberger, 2003; Schafft, 2003). These studies document a litany of teacher and student experiences that show high mobility to be a major interference with instruction and student achievement. On achievement
x Despite years of school reform, many high mobility urban schools and districts still face poor test results, a negative social climate, and poor teacher morale (Mansour, 2002). On Teacher Views
x x x Teachers associate high student mobility with the extra work necessary to acclimate new students to the existing classroom (Kirkpatrick & Lash, 1990). The higher the mobility in a given school, the more often the classroom teacher has to interrupt, alter, or abandon the planned lesson in order to assess, bridge, or integrate the new student's existing level of knowledge and skills. The teacher must often spend extra time catching the student up to the level or context of the lessons already in progress. Social concerns are also important, since the teacher must ensure that the student begins to fit in, make friends, and become part of the group. New students must be acclimated to new classroom rules and routines as well as those of the school as a whole. Teachers also show a propensity to view highly mobile students as less skilled, less socially able, and less likely to behave themselves in the new classroom (Sanderson, 2003). This, in turn, can affect expectations, which impact achievement. Many describe their own reactions to such students as negative; they report not wanting to establish closeness because of the likelihood of the mobile child leaving again in a short time (Lash & Kirkpatrick, 1994). On Curriculum
x x Previous research reveals that in highly mobile schools, so much time is spent repeating and catching students up that lessons often do not progress beyond elemental levels of knowledge or skill (Kerbow, 1996). Able, stable students are put on hold, practicing independently while the teacher's time is taken up with the new student. Teachers also report the effect highly mobile students have on their stable peers. Higher order thinking skills are sacrificed to basic skills, and even stable students in highly mobile elementary schools are the equivalent of one entire year behind their peers in more stable schools by the end of the sixth grade . On staff morale
x Teacher morale suffers when lessons are limited to basic skills. Such high mobility schools become less desirable places to teach and, therefore, are subject to being staffed by new and less experienced teachers (Lash & Kirkpatrick, 1994). On records
x In some cases, students entitled to special education services are placed in regular classrooms where their needs are unknown, and may not be connected with services for weeks or months Characteristics of Mobile Students
x x x x x x x Of students who attended 4 or more school in a 2year period: 74.9% African American; 17.6% Latino 77.8% Receiving subsidized meals 21.8% Living with both parents 39.9% Living with mother only 24.5% Other (not living with either mother or father) From study done in Chicago (Kerbow, 1996) In the Chicago study
x In the typical Chicago elementary school, only 50% of its students are still enrolled at the school after a 3-year period. x 87% moved from one Chicago public school to another x The median distance that students move between schools is 2.4 miles. Fifty-nine percent of the moves are less than 3 miles. What's the situation in VA?
x x x x Mobility rates at the elementary school level ranged from a low of 3.91 percent to a high of 44.91 percent. The median mobility rate for elementary schools was 17.39 percent for 20062007. (Fairfax County Public School) First Colonial High School: 20% (2006-2007) Green Run: 30% (2006-2007) Kempsville: 15% (2006-2007) 2 of 10 Mobility as a Barrier to Effective Education
x x x x x 20% of students move each year - U.S. average 5 or 6 students in each class of 30 will be new each Big difference between in-district and out of district moves All socio-economic levels move (migrant workers are particularly prone to frequent moves) Average teacher spends 6 weeks reviewing at the beginning of the year (15% of curriculum time) 4 of 10 Mobility as a barrier (cont.)
x Bad education in any state or community will affect the entire nation x Does any community have the right to bad education? x Does society have a right to expect certain levels of knowledge? x Should schools be designed for those who stay or those who move? 6 of 10 How should we teach social studies/ history?
x Conventional wisdom: family, block, city, state, nation, world x Reality of the 21st century: a random order of mixed elements x US History every year or not at all 8 of 10 What's the answer to the problem of mobility? 9 of 10 Dr. Allen proposes: A national curriculum
x x x 2/3 nationally determined 1/3 locally influenced Problems: Unattainable ideal? Who is in charge? Who decides? Previous attempts have been "horrible" (DWA), e.g. Governor's conference in 1989, National Council of Mathematics Standards (no ability grouping through 8th grade, use of calculator throughout is okay) 10 of 10 James Conant, Harvard President on mobility
x "The only reason US education hasn't failed (given high rate of mobility), is it's been so watered down." ...
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- Fall '08