PH 120 – LectureActivity for Week 2.2Topic: Cell PhysiologyTable 1- Comparing Different CellsCell NameType ofTissueSimilaritiesDifferencesNeuron cellNerveThey are surrounded by cellmembranes.They possess cell organellessuch as mitochondria,cytoplasm, and others.They possess a nucleus thatcontains the geneticinformation.They also carry out basicfunctions of a cell such assynthesis of proteins andproduction of energy.They have specialized cell partsnamely, axons and dendrites.Communication betweenneurons involveselectrochemical processes (withuse of neurotransmitters).Synapses are structures foundin neurons that are used asareas of transmission betweenneurons themselves, neuronsand glands, or neurons andmuscle cells.Dendritic cellConnectiveIt possesses similar cellstructures such asmitochondria, cytoplasm, anda nucleus, thereby having theMajor HistocompatibilityComplex (MHC) I moleculesattached to the surface of allnucleated healthy cells(Lumen Learning, n.d.b)It possesses MHC II moleculesfound only on macrophages,dendritic cells, and B cells(Lumen Learning, n.d.b).It lacks visible cytoplasmicgranules (Lumen Learning,n.d.a).It is amoeboid shaped(Biocompare, n.d.).Dendritic cells are monocyteswhich are the largest cells in theblood. Their nucleus tend to bebig and is indented or foldedrather than multilobed(Britannica, n.d)ColumnarEpithelialThe nerve, epithelial, muscle,It is specialized to protect,
epithelialcells(Intestinalenterocytes)and connective tissues areprimary body tissue types(SEER Training Modules,2008).absorb, and secrete substances(ToxTutor, nd.).It forms a barrier to the outsideworld, and controls absorption(ToxTutor, nd.)Epithelial cells come in avariety of shapes (ExploringFour Types of Tissues, n.d.).Columnar epithelial cells, as itsname suggests, are taller inshape.It has cells that form strongattachments with each otherthrough protein connections(Boundless, nd.).Intestinal columnar epithelialcells have microvilli, which arenon-motile protrusions on theapical surface of epithelial cells(Svitkina, 2013). It allows for agreater surface area forabsorption.Skeletalmuscle cell(myofiber)MuscleIt contains similar cellstructures and componentscompared to the other cells.It is long, cylindrical, andstriated (Baxter, 2020).Due to its high energyrequirement, it contains manymitochondria to generate ATP(Baxter, 2020).It is multinucleated since it wasformed due to fusion ofembryonic myoblasts (Baxter,2020) .The nucleus regulates thesarcoplasm, which containsmyofibrils that are responsiblefor movement and contraction,around it (Baxter, 2020).
A specialized set of membranestructure, the sarcoplasmicreticulum, is formed from thecell’s endoplasmic reticulum.Its function is to free calciumions to trigger contraction(National Research Council(US) Committee onTechnological Options toImprove the NutritionalAttributes of Animal Products,1988).