Hypothesis Testing - Hypothesis Testing Outline Putting it...

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Unformatted text preview: Hypothesis Testing Outline Putting it all together Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Group Proposal: In-text citations Errors: Overgeneralizations Selective Observations Inaccurate Observations Illogical Reasoning Resistance to Change Putting it all together Putting it all together The Research Process Getting back to basics Theory Theory : Logically organized interrelated ideas that explain a phenomenon of interest and allows testing of the soundness of those ideas against observable facts. a. Must make sense (logic) b. Improve understanding c. Empirical predictions Research Methods Research Question/Inclination Theory Hypothesis ??? Next Step??? General Specific How theories relate to hypotheses Converting ideas into variables Converting general predictions into testable propositions Hypothesis Hypothesis : A prediction about the relationship between two or more variables , asserts that changes in the measure of the independent variable(s) brings about changes in the measure of the dependent variables. Theory Hypothesis Selective incapacitation theory Selective incapacitation theory crime can be reduced by incapacitating the small group of repeat offenders who are responsible for a large portion of serious crime. Selective incapacitation Crime Transformed into a fact or operationalized by the State of California legislature as THREE STRIKES AND YOU ARE OUT (in real life things do not exist in isolation) Inferential Statistics Used to show cause and effect relationships and to test hypotheses T-tests for differences between two means Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Chi-square Correlation Regression Statistical Inference Drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of sample statistics Is the mean GPA of this class equal to the mean GPA of all Research Methods classes that have been taken by undergraduate, CJ major students OR cause and effect relationship shown to exist between IV and DV in the sample, also exists within the actual population Data from Californias 12 largest counties and conclusions about the entire state of California Why we need statistical inference Why make inferences: Because often enough we do not know the Pop. Parameter How can we project estimates of PP Through Sampling Distributions Sampling Distributions : mathematical description of all possible sampling event outcomes and their probabilities Possible Errors Even if we use the systematic methods of social research, can we be sure that our conclusions are 100% correct? Sampling Error Measurement Error Random Error Intro. to Hypothesis Testing Creating Hypotheses We always have two hypotheses: Null hypothesis (H ) Alternative or research hypothesis (H a ) These hypotheses must contain all possible findings (exhaustive) and they do not share any possibilities (mutually exclusive)....
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CJ 292 taught by Professor Bilac during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Hypothesis Testing - Hypothesis Testing Outline Putting it...

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