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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2
Origins and Development of Security Security in England (pgs. 21-25) The concept of security in an organizational sense has evolved gradually throughout the history of Western civilization, shaped by a wide variety of institutional and cultural patterns. In 1700 increased urbanization of the population had created conditions of considerable hardship. Poverty and crime increased rapidly. No public law enforcement agencies existed that could restrain the mounting wave of crime and violence. By the 18th century it is possible to discern both the shape of efforts toward communal security. For instance in 1737 for the first time, tax revenues were used for the payment of a night watchman. This was a significant development in security practice. Security in England (pgs. 21-25) In 1748 Henry Fielding, magistrate and author, proposed a permanent, professional, and adequately paid security force. His invaluable contributions included a foot patrol to make the streets safe, a mounted patrol for the highways, special investigators and police courts. Fielding is credited with conceiving the idea of preventing crime instead of seeking to control it. Security in the United States (pgs. 25-35) Security practices in the early days of colonial America followed the patterns that colonists had been familiar with in England. In the 1850's Allan Pinkerton (a copper), from Scotland and the Chicago Police Department's first detective, established what was to become one of the oldest and largest private security operations in the U.S., Pinkerton Protection Patrol. Similar companies began to emerge. Brinks, Wells Fargo, and Adams Express were the first major firms to offer security for the transportation of valuables and money. Security in the United States: Crime Trends
(pgs. 25-35) In the 1990's as the number of crimes began to decrease, the cost of business crime continues to rise. One study estimated that business crime could increase to more than 200 billion by the turn of the century. The following have been identified as the most serious economic crime problems: Money Laundering Identity Fraud Terrorism Growth of Private Security (pgs. 31-35) One of the most significant realization in recent years has been that "the sheer magnitude of crime in our society prevents the CJ system by itself from adequately controlling or preventing crime". Society can no longer rely almost exclusively on the police to prevent and control crime. Private security must play a greater role in the prevention and control of crime than ever before. One study found that in 2000 the private security industry spent more money than the U.S. government. Professionalism and a New Philosophy (pgs
32- 35). Public law enforcement at local, state, and federal levels, along with security operations, must work together, sharing intelligence to control problems and reestablish a sense of security in world citizens. Even with the preponderance of new technology, old techniques, and technology are still commonplace in many operations. The one thing that has changed is the need to consider terrorism as a major threat to all countries and their businesses. Questions to think about What are some significant developments in Security? Who has helped evolve the security field? What are some of the earliest companies in security in the US? Why do we need private security? What is the future of security? Compare private security vs. public government funded security. ...
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- Spring '08