ACIS Exam 2 Review Notes

ACIS Exam 2 Review Notes - ACIS Exam 2 Review Notes Chapter...

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ACIS Exam 2 Review Notes Chapter 3 1. Hardware is electronic components and related gadgetry that input, processes, output and stores data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software 2. General purpose computers can run different programs to perform different functions 3. Special purpose computers (cell phones) run programs that run on a fixed memory 4. The difference between the two is that whether the computer can process a variety of programs. 5. Input hardware devices are keyboards, mouse, scanners, barcodes, and microphones. 6. Central Processing Unit (CPU) is known as the brain of the computer. It selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic and logical comparisons as well as stores results of operations in memory. Often times they vary in speed, function and cost. 7. Main Memory is where after the data and instructions from the memory are read by the CPU it stores the results of the computations 8. Special Function Cards can be added to the computer to modify its basic capabilities. An example of one is a card that provides clarity and speed for the video display. 9. Output Hardware: is video displays, printers, speakers and projectors 10. Storage Hardware: saves data and programs. An example of one is a CD, DVD, or magnetic disk 11. Binary Digits: are how computers represent data. A bit is an example of a binary digit, It is either a 0 or a 1. They are used for computer data because they are easy to physically represent. They are used for instruction and data 12. Instruction Set: is the collection of instructions that computers can process. An example is that all computers that run Microsoft windows are based on IS 13. Bytes: are eight bit chunks (kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte) 14. One can not tell what a bit string is just by looking at it. The CPU determines it based on the surrounding context 15. Motherboard: is the circuit board where processing components are mounted/connected 16. Data Channel/Bus: is where the CPU reads instructions and data from main memory writes the data down in main memory using the bus.
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17. Main Memory: is constructed of cells, each one holds a byte of data or instruction. It is also known as RAM which stands for random access memory: each cell can be referenced in any certain order 18. There are two major types of software: Operating systems and Application Programs 19. In order to store instructions or data, RAM must have electrical power. When power is turned off, the memory contents are lost.
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ACIS Exam 2 Review Notes - ACIS Exam 2 Review Notes Chapter...

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