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RESEARCH-ChAPTER-123-BY-Group-4-edited.docx - CHAPTER 1 THE...

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CHAPTER 1THE PROBLEM AND IT’S SETTINGIntroductionIntelligence and skills can only funtionat the peak of their capacitywhen the body ishealthy andstrong.-John F. KennedyIn the present era, physical education and sports is an essential part of education. Itcontributes directly to the development of physical competence and fitness. It also helps theyouth to be aware of the worth of leading a physically active lifestyle. The healthy and physicallyactive youth is more likely to be academically motivated, attentive and promising. In other wordswe can say that physical education and sports is exclusive to the school core curriculum. Thephysical education is only the course where youth learn about all of the benefits gained frombeing physically active as well as the skills and knowledge to incorporate safe, satisfyingphysical activity into their lives, in addition, how to interact with others (National Association forSport and Physical Education, 2001).Physical activity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as any bodilymovement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. All movementsincluding during leisure time, transport to get to and from places, or as a part of a person’s workare considered as physical activities. The term “physical activity” should not be mistaken withthe term “exercise” since exercise is a subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structures,repetitive, and purposeful in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or morecomponents of physical fitness is the objective. Physical activity includes exercise as well as1
other activities which involve bodily movement and are done as part of playing, working, activetransportation, house chores and recreational activities.1Exploration of the past reveals that physical education (PE) has been influenced by twophilosophies: (1) body viewed as an object; and (2) the view of the whole person; body, mind, spirit andwell-being. It is important to understand these two philosophical influences in recognition that PhysicalEducation is socially constructed and subsequently semantics have evolved over time. (Lynch andSoucup, 2016)Literature suggests that on occasions throughout history, physical education has been responsiblefor schooling the body, where the body is viewed as an object. The body as an object occurs “in a societywhen man [and woman] has gained the capacity of looking at his [or her] own body as if it were a thing”(Broekhoff, 1972). This concept is described by Kirk as a “useful and controlled body, one which isappropriately skilled with the capacities to meet the standards of acceptable social behaviour of anyparticular society and to make a productive contribution within the economic system” (Kirk, 1993).Physical Activity is a very important part of our education, it usually included and taughtin every curriculum starting from the elementary years up to college. Regular physical activity is

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