Chapter 3 Review

Chapter 3 Review - Jared Augenstein Intro Psychology...

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Jared Augenstein Intro Psychology Chapter 3 Summary VISION Sensation o The awareness of properties of an object or event that occurs when a type of receptor (e.g. those in the ear, etc.) is stimulated o Sensations arise when enough physical energy strikes a sense organ, so that the receptor cells send neural impulses to the brain Perception o The act of organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event o First must specify sizes and locations of objects, then recognize and identify Psychophysics o The study of the relation between physical events and the corresponding experience of those events Threshold o The point at which stimulation is strong enough to be noticed o Absolute threshold The smallest amount of a stimulus needed in order to detect that the stimulus is present o Just-noticeable difference (JND) The size of the difference in stimulus property needed for the observer to notice that a change has occurred A kind of threshold that depends on the overall magnitude of the stimulus (e.g. a thin person vs. a heavier person gaining 5 lbs.) Weber’s law The rule that a constant percentage of a magnitude change is necessary to detect a difference (e.g. the greater the thickness of the waist, the greater the extra amount must be to be noticed) o Signal detection theory A theory explaining why people detect signals, which are always embedded in noise, in some situations but not others Sensitivity o The threshold level for distinguishing between a stimulus and noise – the lower the threshold the greater the sensitivity
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Bias o A person’s willingness to report noticing a stimulus o Change bias by adjusting criterion Amplitude o The height of the peaks in a light wave Frequency o The rate at which light waves move past a given point Wavelength o The time between the arrival of peaks of a light wave; shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies o Lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) are towards red end of spectrum, higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths) are towards violet end Transduction o The process whereby physical energy is converted by a sensory neuron into neural impulses Pupil o The opening in the eye through which light passes Iris o The circular muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil Cornea o The transparent covering over the eye, which serves party to focus the light onto the back of the eye Accommodation o Occurs when muscles adjust the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances Retina o A sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to neural impulses Fovea o The small, central region of the retina with the highest density of cones and the highest resolution Rods o Retinal cells that are very sensitive to light but register only shades of grey Cones o Retinal cells that respond most strongly to one of three wavelengths of
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Chapter 3 Review - Jared Augenstein Intro Psychology...

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