Chapter 2 Review

Chapter 2 Review - Jared Augenstein Intro to Psychology...

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Jared Augenstein Intro to Psychology Chapter 2 Review The Neuron: A Powerful Computer Neuron - A cell that receives signals from other neurons or sense organs, processes these signals, and sends the signals to other neurons, muscles, or bodily organs; the basic unit of the nervous system. Sensory Neuron - A neuron that responds to input from sense organs Motor Neuron - A neuron that sends signals to muscles to control movement Interneuron - A neuron that is connected to other neurons, not to sense organs or muscles. Most Neurons in the human body are interneurons Glial Cell - A cell that fills the gaps between neurons, influences the communication among them, and generally helps in the care and feeding of neurons. Brain Circuit - A set of neurons that affect one another. Structure of a Neuron: The Ins and Outs Cell Body - The middle part of a cell (including a neuron), which contains the nucleus Cell Membrane - The skill of a cell Axon- The sending end of the neuron; the long cable extending from the cell body Terminal Button- A structure at the end of the axons that, when the neuron is triggered releases chemicals into the space between neurons. Dendrite- The twiggy part of a neuron that receives messages from the axons of other neurons (derived from Greek word dendron which means tree) Neural Impulses: The Brain in Action Resting Potential- The negative charge within a neuron when it is at rest Ion- An atom that has a positive or negative charge Action Potential- The shifting change in charge that moves down the axon. All-or-None Law- States that if the neuron is sufficiently stimulated, it fires, sending the action potential all the way down the axon and releasing chemicals from the terminal buttons; either the action potential occurs or it doesn’t. Myelin- A fatty substance that helps impulses travel down the axon more efficiently. There are more sodium ions outside the neuron than inside, and there are more potassium ions inside than outside the neuron. People with MS (Multiple Sclerosis) have myelin that has deteriorated therefore their impulses stumble as they move down the axon. Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Bridging the Gap
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Synapse- The place where an axon of one neuron meets the membrane (on a dendrite or cell body) of another neuron Synaptic Cleft- The gap between the axon of one neuron and the membrane of another, across which communication occurs. Chemical Messages: Signals and Modulators Synapse- The place where an axon of one neuron meets the membrane (on a dendrite or cell body) of another neuron Synaptic Cleft- The gap between the axon of one neuron and the membrane of another, across which communication occurs Neurotransmitter- A chemical that sends signals from the terminal buttons on one neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another o Acetylcholine (ACh) Shortage: Alzheimer’s, delusions Excess: Convulsions, spasms, tremors. o
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 105 taught by Professor Baird during the Spring '07 term at Vassar.

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Chapter 2 Review - Jared Augenstein Intro to Psychology...

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