CJ 4340 Test 2 Review

CJ 4340 Test 2 Review - CJ 4340 Test 2 Review Overview of...

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CJ 4340 Test 2 Review Overview of Sociological Theory Review the leading general assumptions Causes/Correlates of Crime are essentially social Incidence/Prevalence of crime rate and rates of participation in crime vary by both personal(sex, race, age, social class, income, etc.) and social indicators(poverty, inequality, employment, and population change, etc.) How does incidence/prevalence of crime and its rate vary, if at all? Varies by personal indicators and social indicators(listed above) Review the shifting focus, changing dynamics, and implied “links” across the 3 Foci of the Sociological View of Crime -Ecological Distribution o How does crime vary between communities? Night or day? What season? o Are certain locales more ridden than others? o Are certain groups(classes) and persons more prone due to their location in society? o Does population mobility and change(white flight from urban areas) cause crime through loss of services to urban cores? Effects of Social Change o Importance of 3 19 th Century social changes: Industrialization Urbanization 1
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Immigration o Role of poverty and being poor: Underclass Disreputable poor Undeserving poor Interactive Nature of Crime o Role of socialization into American the mainstream culture o Does crime vary due to people in power? o An indoctrination process where we must assimilate into dominate culture o Important role of: Family/peers Institutions Groups Culture itself Note changing positions across the 3 Major Domains and theoretical views included Structural Views o Basically says society and conditions of society helps “push” people into crime o A disadvantaged economics class portion is THE primary cause of crime o Examples: Structural Functionalism(Durkheim) Social Disorganization(Shaw and McKay) 2
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Social Strain(Merton) Cultural Deviance(Miller, Cohen, Cloward, Ohlin) Social Process o Suggest that some people don’t complete socialization process o NOT PREDETERMINED o Criminality is a function of individual socialization o People, regardless of race, class or gender… have the potential to “become” crime directed or crime ridden o Examples: Social Learning(Sutherland) Social Control(Hirschi, Reckless) Social Labeling(Tannenbaum, Lemert, Becker) Social Conflict o Criminal behavior is a function of tension and conflict in society o Crime is the outcome of class struggle over or for scarce resources of society o Examples: Marxist Structural Views Review the major premise and strengths of each view Social Disorganization Theory Shaw & McKay’s Concentric Zone Theory o Crime is a product of transitional neighborhoods 3
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o Identifies why crime rates are highest in slums Social Ecology Theory o Conflicts and problems of urban social life and communities o Accounts for urban crime rates and trends Strain Theory Anomie Theory o People who adopt the goals of society by lack the means to attain them seek alternatives o
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CJ 4340 Test 2 Review - CJ 4340 Test 2 Review Overview of...

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