RESEARCH.docx - RESEARCH MODULE 1 NATURE AND INQUIRY OF...

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RESEARCH MODULE 1: NATURE AND INQUIRY OF RESEARCH Research Defined Research comes from the middle French word recherche , which means “the act of searching closely” combination of the prefix re- , which means again , and the word search , which means “to look for” process of looking for information once again main objective is to answer questions and acquire new information, whether to solve a problem or to shed light on confusing facts Research and Science Research process of gathering data to prove a claim, test existing hypotheses, and find answer and solutions on pressing problems at hand generates knowledge that aims to describe , explain , and predict events Science conceptualized as a procedural and systematic approach in gaining new knowledge by making thorough observations and using controlled and precise methods a research done scientifically is more accurate , reliable , and valid Scientific Method in Research the process of conducting research scientifically involves a systematic collection and investigation of data through the scientific method. It provides a set of clear and settled guidelines for collecting, assessing, and detailing data in the context of a research study in conducting research, scientific procedures must be applied to obtain reliable and accurate information. Elements: 1. Empirical Approach > knowledge is gained through direct observation and experimentation > only those data derived from scientific procedures are considered factual 2. Observation > your awareness of your environment constitutes your ideas > to increase the veracity of the information you gained from observation, you have to measure it carefully using an appropriate instrument 3. Question > knowledge comes from inquiries that are answerable > questions must be answered through scientific investigation and must generate tangible proof > a question is unanswerable when it is deemed impossible for realistic exploration, no matter how intriguing it may be 4. Hypotheses > an educated guess, or hypothesis, is an attempt to explain a phenomena > it helps you formulate a prediction > it must be testable for analysis and interpretation 5. Experiments > the given hypothesis should assure testability in a crafted condition for the accuracy and reliability of results > the process of experimentation itself is a proof of scientific procedures and so, the findings are considered truthful 6. Analyses > for findings to be reliable, the data gathered are subjected for analysis through statistical methods > the statistical treatment to be employed depends on the design of the study, types of data, and given questions > you have to use statistics because it presents numerical evidence of the degree in which the results are considered valid and reliable 7. Conclusion > answers to the problem raised by the researcher at the start of the study > the process of making inferences involves concrete data to rule out opinions > a conclusion must be objective and supported by meticulous analysis of data > you should avoid adding more to

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