PSY 3315 Test 3 Review

PSY 3315 Test 3 Review - PSY 3315 Test 3 Review Substance...

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PSY 3315 Test 3 Review Substance Use Disorders most “substances” are PSYCHOACTIVE caffeine, smoking, etc. mood enhancers disorders categorized by: o abuse-“pattern of maladaptive use”; consistent use JUST BEFORE point of dependency o dependency(includes abuse)-includes tolerance(adapting to drug); has withdrawals alcohol is most “costly drug in US o associated with most violent crimes nicotine(cigarettes) is “deadliest” drug body builds tolerance to maintain a balanced homeostasis Tolerance o Not jus tot the “high”, but also the toxicity o There is a “ceiling” to tolerance Usually severe problems occur when beyond “ceiling” o Fluctuates Types of Substances o CNS Stimulants Caffeine Nicotine-“helps withdrawals”, raises blood pressure, is a MOOD ELEVATOR Cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines o Cocaine 1
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Comes from cocoa leaf Powerful mood elevator Liver metabolizes it very quickly o Amphetamines Used back in war times Helped keep soldiers alert and curbed appetite Also clears sinuses o Methamphetamines Really bad for body and brain “worst drug” Heroine falls in this category o CNS Depressants Alcohol DOES NOT destroy brain cells Acetaldehyde blocks receptor sites which cause slurring, crooked walking, etc. Brain then makes more receptors(up-regulates) “insidious”(sneaks up on you); somewhat hard to become addicted(happens over time) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS Alcohol o insidious, meaning addiction sneaks up on you, not easy to become addicted but will happen over time with frequent use o Wernicke-Korsakoff’s – depletion of vitamin B1, an amnesic disorder meaning it is amnesia of a sort, failure to form long-term memories. 2
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Benzodiazepines o Anti-anxiety drugs. E.g. Librium, Valium, Xanax o Used to be considered ‘mother’s little helper’ in the 60’s, they were typically prescribed to housewives who had anxiety. Barbiturates o Analgesics, pain killers. E.g. Seconol, Phenobarbitol, Nembutol. ‘Downers’. Withdraw of any of these three drugs can cause Delirium Tremens (DT’s) which is a shut down of the nervous system o shakes, cold sweats, hallucinations o A person can die from DT’s if they do not seek medical attention. DT’s only occur from withdraw when a person has a serious addiction. Many people who use ‘downers’ also use alcohol. Very easy to have an accidental overdose. Opiates Opium o from the opium poppy o Afghanistan is the biggest producer in world o Bulb which turns into a flower, farmers slice bulb when it is big and full and once the sap has oozed out and when the sap dries out they make balls which can be chewed, smoked, converted into morphine or heroin o Has been used for centuries. Very pleasurable effects. Used to be used in many medications, such as Laudnum,
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PSY 3315 Test 3 Review - PSY 3315 Test 3 Review Substance...

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