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Chapter 12 Notes (pgs. 473 - 485)

Chapter 12 Notes (pgs. 473 - 485) - Alissa Kato April 2...

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Alissa Kato April 2, 2015 Psych 11C Chapter 12 (pgs. 473 – 485) I. Threat and Aggression A. Other motives depend primarily on external triggers, ex: reaction to intense threat B. Bodies = many internal adjustments in response to threat 1. Adjustments tightly controlled by complex regulatory mechanisms → seem function similarly in humans & other species C. Genetic mechanisms interact constantly w/enviro & experiences II. Physiological Aspects of Threat and Aggression A. Sympathetic branch of autonomic nervous system (ANS) → summons body’s resources in times of crisis & gets organism ready for vigorous action 1. Excitation stimulates inner core of adrenal gland = adrenal medulla i. Pours epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine into bloodstream a. Have effects similar → activation of sympathetic nervous system, SNS - Accelerate ♥ rate, speed ↑ metabolism, etc. b. Result = amplify sympathetic effects further III. The “Fight or Flight” Response A. Physiologist Walter Cannon → intense sympathetic arousal = emergency reaction that mobilizes organism for crisis 1. Where “fight or flight’ phrase derived from B. Sympathetic activation allows pronounced muscular exertion w/support entire bodily machinery 1. B/c of activation = more nutrient fuel available to muscles & can delivered rapidly via wide-open blood vessels, accelerated ♥beat, (mammals = piloerection → hair standing ↑, which normally heat-conserving device), & pupillary dilation 2. Simultaneously = waste products discarded & all less-essential bodily activities brought to halt 3. Occurs when animal/organism about to flee & attack C. “Fight or flight” explanation = overly simple b/c organisms respond to threats in many different ways; ex: standing immobile when threatened → predators less likely to notice them
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1. Or even some animals/organisms use camo when threatened 2. Also variations w/in species; ex: females = respond to stress w/tending (ex: taking care of children) & befriending (ex: using social support) D. Arousal of sympathetic branch of ANS can disruptive & damaging 1. Plagued by chronic stressors (ex: traffic, bosses, deadlines, & world crises) 2. Physical action = frequently inappropriate, ineffective, or illegal; but still stuck w/same emergency reactions ancestors had i. Keep selves armed physiologically against situations = can’t really control a. Lead to wear & tear = can be toll IV. Aggression and Predation A. Reaction to threat = contributed to survival by preparing organism for whatever energetic activities needs escape threat B. Comparative method = studies nonhumans & humans to see what kinds commonalities in behavior reflect shared bio heritage C. 2 violence forms organisms engage in = aggression & predation 1. Predatory attack = motivated by hunger & controlled by same brain sites as eating 2. Aggressive or self-defense behaviors controlled by distinct brain areas, triggered by different situations, & show different behavioral profiles V. Male Aggression and Hormones A. Most cases = individ. identify as aggressive → male b/c among vertebrates male far more
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