Sensory anesthesia – loss of sensory ability, such as blindness, deafness, or loss of feeling
in a body part.
Hysteria – a neurotic condition consisting of two subcategories: conversion reaction
(physical symptoms such as paralysis or loss of sensation without organic cause) and
dissociative reaction (disruption of a consistent unitary sense of self that may include
amnesia, fugue, and/or multiple personalities).
Motivational determinism – Freud’s belief that everything a person does may be
determined by his or her pervasive, but unconscious, motives.
Conscious – within awareness.
Preconscious – thoughts, experiences, and memories not in a person’s immediate
attention but that can be called into awareness at any moment.
Unconscious – in psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality of which the ego is
unaware but that profoundly effects actions and behaviors.
Free association – a technique used in psychoanalytic therapy in which the patient is
instructed to report whatever comes to mind, no matter how irrational it may seem.
Pleasure principle – in Freud’s theory – the basis for id functioning; irrational, seeks
immediate satisfaction of instinctual impulses.
Primary process thinking – Freud’s term for the id’s direct, reality-ignoring attempts to
satisfy needs irrationally.
Reality principle – in Freud’s theory, the basis for ego functioning; rational; dictates
delay in the discharge of tension until environmental conditions are appropriate.
Id – in Freudian theory, the foundation of the personality and a basic component of the
psyche, consisting of unconscious instincts and inherited biological drives; it operates on
the pleasure principle.
Ego – in Freudian theory, the conscious part of the personality that mediates between the
demands of the id and the demands of the world; operates on the reality principle.
Superego – in Freud’s theory, the conscience, made up of the internalized values of the
parents; strives for self-control and perfection; it is both unconscious and conscious.
Psychodynamics – in psychoanalytic theory, the processes through which personality is
regulated; it is predicated on the concept of repressed, unconscious impulses and the
significance of early childhood experience.
Transformation of motives – defense mechanism in which basic impulses persist but the
objects at which they are directed and the manner in which they are expressed are
Denial – in Freudian theory, a primitive defense mechanism in which a person a
threatening impulse or event even though reality confirms it; the basis for development of
Repression – according to psychoanalytic theory, an unconscious defense mechanism
through which unacceptable (ego-threatening) material is kept from awareness; the
repressed motives, ideas, conflicts, memories, etc. continue to influence behavior.