GY_101_Missed1

GY_101_Missed1 - GY 101 Notes Atmosphere Basics Boundary...

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GY 101 Notes Atmosphere Basics Boundary between homosphere and heterosphere: -Turbopause; “turbo”—turbulent mixing -roughly consistent with mesopause Classification based on Temperature: -“Thermal Layers” Troposphere: to about 12 km (7.5 miles) Stratoshpere: to about 48 km (30 miles) Mesosphere: to about 80 km (50 miles) Thermosphere -Based on changes in air temperature with increasing altitude (Fig. 6.5) Troposphere: T DECREASES Stratoshpere: T INCREASES Mesosphere: T DECREASES Thermosphere: TINCREASES -“Breathable Atmosphere” The Weather Makers (2005) pg.31 Roughly 2-1/2 miles or 4 km above surface Troposphere: -Where changing weather occurs “tropos”= turning or changing -Air is constantly in motion (vertically and horizontally) -Contains most of atmosphere’s water vapor, clouds, dust particles -Height of tropopause averages 12 km (7.5 miles) above surface -Height varies by latitude and season due to variations in insolation Higher ceiling at Equator (and in summer) Lower ceiling at poles (and in winter -Temperature decline with increasing altitude in troposphere -“Normal” relationship between temperature and altitude Normal Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR): -Normal ELR refers to the decline in temp as altitude increases within troposphere According to Lab Book-Averages 7* C. per 1000 meters OR .7 per 100 meters For consistency, this is the rate we will use! Book says 6.5 per 1000 meters Stratosphere: -Still within homosphere, but more “stratified” (“stratos”) Less vertical mixing, more horizontal winds, calmer, fewer clouds or cloudless Extends from tropopause to about 48 lm (30 miles) above the earth’s surface at the stratopause -Contains the “ozone layer” Stratospheric ozone absorbs potentially dangerous ultraviolet radiation
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Stratospheric Ozone (03): -“Good” Ozone -About 90% of all atmospheric ozone -Absorbs UV-B radiation -Created when UV radiation breaks apart 02 molecules; atomic oxygen them combines with unbroken 02 molecules to form 03 So when is ozone “bad”? -Tropospheric ozone (03) Pollutant, smog, exhaust Created when exhaust and industrial emissions react chemically with sunlight Global Distribution of Stratospheric Ozone: -Unevenly distributed around the globe -Ozone levels are generally highest in the middle and upper latitudes -Why? Prevailing stratospheric winds transport ozone-rich air from tropics toward the
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