Ch 8 Thinking - Ch 8 Thinking 1 Varieties of thinking an...

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Ch 8 Thinking 1. Varieties of thinking: an introduction a. Thinking always purposive; from tension between current state and goal state b. Categories of Thinking i. Problem Solving (ex. typing and composition; getting seed out of pod) ii. Reasoning (ex. logic) iii. Decision-making (ex. to be or not to be) 2. Varieties of thinking: Problem Solving a. How not to get lost in a problem space i. Cognitive problems can be conceptualized in terms of state spaces (ex. Towers of Hanoi) ii. Search through state space for solution 1. guided by knowledge-based heuristics & limited by depth 2. hill-climbing to the most desirable state, but do not know location of that state, only possible to examine immediate surrounding iii. distributed and situated cognitive thinking iv. ill-formulated problems must look for appropriate state space first v. Means-Ends analysis: apply relevant operators to state-space representation (ex. understand that filter doesn’t have to fit inside receptacle, just has to be airtight on Apollo 13) b. Mental models i. “next state” operator must be capable of generating hypotheses about the consequences of complex actions ii. Mental model: a simulation of a chunk of external reality pertaining to problem at hand iii. Simulation: general feature of cognitive representation; many use perceptual simulation iv. Counterfactual thought: generating hypotheses about what might have been (vs. what will be) 1. tool: “possible worlds” approach 2. mediated by orbitofrontal cortex; tied in with regret & neg. consequences 3. “fault lines” of imagination: constrained, come up with same few possibilities due to statistical-structural learning of regularity v. Meta-problem solving 1. evaluating the problematicity of a situation 2. two extremes: can solve by habit or immense variety of attributes that potentially apply due to rich conceptual system 3. Varieties of thinking: Reasoning Most common: causal reasoning (deduction), evidential reasoning (abduction), and explaining away a. Logic and deduction i. Deductive: (P Q) modus ponens (P, then Q) and modus tollens (not Q, then not P) ii. Wason selection task: better performance with more familiar concepts 1. Two distinct thinking systems a. system 1: fast, automatic, associative, heuristics-based; monitors natural situations; generates probabilistic assessments without conscious effot b. system 2: time-consuming, deliberate consideration of problem iii. working memory: scarce resource; must resort to external memory (outsourcing) iv.
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  • Spring '08
  • edelman
  • virtual machine, causal reasoning, evidential reasoning, thinking systems a.

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