Bio. 1 Final review ch. 44

Bio. 1 Final review ch. 44 - Review Ch. 44 What are...

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Review Ch. 44 What are adaptations for gas exchange in air or water? Gills are adapted for water and tracheal tubes of insects and lungs of vertebrates are respiratory structures are adapted for gas exchange in air. What are the 4 main types of respiratory surfaces? Please explain how each one functions. Provide an example for each. A. Animal’s own body surface—usually small, with high surface to volume ratio, with low metabolic rate requiring smaller amounts of oxygen per cell. It is usually kept moist by water or fluid secreted by animal. B. Tracheal tubes---air enters tracheal tubes through up to 20 tiny openings called spiracles along body surface. After entering the body, air passes through a system of branching tracheal tubes which extend to the rest of the animal, where tracheal tubes turn into tracheoles and gases are exchanged between fluid and the body cells. C. Gills—moist, thin structures that extend from body structure. They are supported in water but collapse in air. The outer surface is exposed to water and the inner surface is in close contact with blood vessels. D. Lungs—ingrowths of the body surface. Spiders have book lungs, and lungfishes have gills and lungs. Birds have a complicated system of air sacs and salamanders have lungs and diffusions on the body suface What does hemoglobin bind with? oxygen Why is oxygen necessary for one to survive? Oxygen aids in production of ATP which is necessary for all muscle movement. Know the air passageway. Air passageway: nostrils nasal cavities pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli How does gas exchange occur at the alveoli level? Explain the exchange of the gases. Each alveolus is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, so gas can diffuse freely through the wall into the capillaries that surround it, so it can bond with the hemoglobin in the blood. What is the function of the epiglottis? To prevent food from going down the trachea. Explain the cough reflex. Cough is when a foreign object goes down the trachea and it is forces back out by coughing. Explain the difference in air pressure for inspiration and expiration. During inspiration, the air pressure decreases below that outside the body, causing air to rush into the lungs until pressure equalizes. During expiration, the air pressure raises about the outside pressure and air is expelled until pressure equalizes again. What is tidal volume? Tidal volume: amount of air moved into and out of the lungs with each normal resting breath What is vital capacity? Vital capacity: maximum amount of air a person can exhale after filling the lungs to the maximum extent. It is larger than tidal volume b/c the lungs are not completely emptied of stale air and filled with fresh air with each normal resting breath.
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How is carbon dioxide returned to the alveolar sacs? Simple diffusion causes CO
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Hernandez during the Spring '08 term at Abilene Christian University.

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Bio. 1 Final review ch. 44 - Review Ch. 44 What are...

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