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Plant 105- Midterm Study guide

Plant 105- Midterm Study guide - Topic 1 Scientific Method...

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Topic 1: Scientific Method and Critical Reading & Writing Understand the steps involved in the Scientific Method. Observation/Question Literature/Library research Create hypothesis Design experiment Conduct experiment Accept or reject hypothesis Be able to give examples within the different steps that might lead to inaccuracies. Tired when collecting data Hurried through observations Repeat experiments to be thorough Be prepared to discuss how you would apply the scientific method to investigate the validity of observations such as: (a) The nutritional value of vegetables tends to decrease with days after harvest; (b) The increase demand for corn for ethanol production has affected the price of cereals and milk. Observe prices of cereals and milk in the grocery store Research past and current price trends for cereals and milk Using corn for ethanol production has doubled the price of cereals and milk for the average consumer Collect data on three largest grocery store chains for prices of cereals and milk presently and in the past 5 years. Based on the data of the grocery stores prices for cereals and milk have increased over the past 5 years What are the limitations of the Scientific Method? Science is a human activity and subject to human problems. One time events are difficult to study Cannot prove something is safe Correlation vs. cause and effect Under what circumstances are the Scientific Method not applicable? One time events Proving something is safe Be able to differentiate between “hypothesis”, “model”, “theory” and “law”. Hypothesis – a limited statement regarding cause and effect in specific situations; also refers to our state of knowledge before experimental work has been performed. Model – reserved for situations when it is known that the hypothesis has the least limited validity; only valid for small amounts of “stretching” and the law fails Theory and law – represents the hypothesis or a group of related hypotheses, which has been confirmed through repeated experimental tests Differentiate between primary, secondary and tertiary literature sources. Recognize examples of each type. 400f6ecd5472982bbca226ce91de6a041f226138.doc Page 1 of 10
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Primary literature – contain original data and ideas are generally the first published record of an investigation o Research articles, research monographs, preprints, patents, dissertations, and conference proceedings Secondary literature – information about primary sources; may rearrange or modify data to include additional data o Encyclopedias, review articles, handbooks, bibliographies, and abstracts/indexes Tertiary sources – discuss science rather than contribute or are indirect sources o Textbooks, directories, and literature guides What is a Fallacy? Be able to identify examples of fallacies of distraction, inductive fallacies and causal fallacies.
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Plant 105- Midterm Study guide - Topic 1 Scientific Method...

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