Biol 411 Final

Biol 411 Final - I. Digestive Glands: A. Liver: second...

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I. Digestive Glands: A. Liver: second largest organ 1. Covered in dense connective tissue capsule 2. Simple squamous epithelium surrounds capsule except where there’s contact with diaphragm or other organs 3. Liver parenchyma organized as lobules (surrounded by connective tissue septa) 4. Triad a. Hepatic artery b. Portal vein c. Bile duct – originate as bile canaliculi found where two hepatocytes contact each other. 5. Center of each lobule is a central vein, through which the blood flow leaves the lobule 6. Hepatocytes are epithelial cells grouped in interconnected plates surround the central vein 7. Blood supply to the lobule comes from two vessels: a. Portal vein branches (75%) b. Hepatic artery branches (25%) c. Since most of blood is coming from other abdominal organs, it is often rich in newly absorbed nutrients. Since most of blood already passed through a capillary bed, it is somewhat depleted of oxygen. d. Blood from these vessels intermingle in a network of sinusoids e. Every hepatocyte is in direct contact with at least one sinusoid. 8. Functions: a. Synthesizes most circulating plasma proteins, such as albumin, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and clotting factors. b. Stores vitamin A in Ito cells
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c. Is central to metabolism of the body i. Only organ to synthesize and secrete glucose into blood ii. Breaks down fatty acids for energy and to release ketone bodies for use when glucose is low iii. Synthesizes fatty acids and secretes them as VLDL’s iv. Primary site of amino acid interconversion, degradation, and elimination of nitrogenous wastes d. Produces and secretes bile, which facilitates absorption of fats in small intestine and also is a path for the disposal of wastes such as bilirubin B. Gall Bladder
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Biol 411 Final - I. Digestive Glands: A. Liver: second...

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